Food Technology's editorial purpose is to present information regarding the development of new and improved food sources, products, and processes, their proper utilization by industry and the consumer, and their effective regulation by government agencies. Feature articles cover all aspects of food, from growing and harvesting to production, distribution, and consumption. Topics include but are not limited to automation, biochemistry, biology, biotechnology, chemistry, consumer trends, education, energy analysis, engineering, experimental design, food safety & defense, foodservice, information retrieval, ingredients, labeling, laboratory analysis, management, marketing, microbiology, nanotechnology, nutrition & health, packaging, pollution control, processing, product development, quality assurance, regulation, research, sensory, supply chain management, and sustainability.
Types of Articles
Articles for publication in Food Technology may be state-of-the-art reviews of research; symposia papers; or discussions of new products, equipment, techniques, ingredients, regulations, educational developments, marketing trends, or events of historical significance. They may also be opinions or commentaries on current events that affect the food industry, food technologists, or the food profession.
Serial articles are not accepted for publication; each article must be complete.
Authors should submit an outline of the proposed article to the Editor for prompt advice as to whether the article would be suitable. Authors need not be members of the Institute of Food Technologists.
Articles should be prepared in a feature style, rather than in the standard scientific research paper format. See back issues of Food Technology for examples.
Criteria for Acceptance
To be considered for publication, an article must report on a significant development; have a direct bearing on food, IFT, or IFT members; be of interest to a significant number of IFT members; include sufficient data to support claims and/or conclusions; not have been published elsewhere; and not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.
Acceptability and accuracy of each submitted article are determined by the editorial staff. In special circumstances, the article may be reviewed by one or more scientists known to be experts in the subject area discussed in the article.
Other reasons besides quality and scientific merit, however, affect the decision to accept or reject an article. Among these are the amount of space available, the quality of other articles competing for that space, the mix of articles desired, and the expected degree of interest to IFT members. For these reasons, an article that otherwise meets the criteria enumerated above may occasionally be rejected.
The preferred length for articles is about 2,500 words or 5–6 printed pages, including all images, figures, tables, and references. Each figure, table, or photo generally equals one-fourth of a printed page.
Papers accepted for publication become the sole property of the publisher, IFT, who holds the copyright. United States and convention copyright laws prohibit reproduction by anyone, including authors, without permission. Requests for permission to reproduce material should be made by writing to the editor.
Sequence of Events
Each submitted manuscript goes through the following steps:
- Review. The manuscript is reviewed by the editorial staff. In special circumstances where the editorial staff is unsure of the importance or validity of the manuscript, the article may be reviewed by one or more scientists known to be experts in the subject area discussed in the article. The author(s) is notified by the editorial staff upon acceptance or rejection of the manuscript. Accepted manuscripts are then edited by the editorial staff.
- Editing and Revisions. Once the manuscript is accepted, it is edited to make sure that grammar and punctuation are correct, ideas are expressed clearly, no ambiguities exist, no obvious scientific errors exist, and the manuscript is in Food Technology's style.
- Editing. Once the manuscript is accepted, it is edited to make sure that grammar and punctuation are correct, ideas are expressed clearly, no ambiguities exist, no obvious scientific errors exist, and the manuscript is in Food Technology's style.
- Author Approval. The edited manuscript is then sent to the author for any necessary clarification and approval. At this stage, the author may make any further changes desired. This is the author's last contact with the manuscript prior to publication; no proofs of designed pages are sent to the author.
- Typesetting and Proofreading. When the author's changes and approval have been received, the editorial staff makes any final changes and has the manuscript typeset/designed. The editorial staff then proofreads the typeset manuscript.
- Publication. Upon publication, the author is sent a copy of the issue in which the article appears.
Preparation of Manuscript
Type the manuscript in a Word or Word-compatible document. Type everything double-spaced: text, references, acknowledgments, tables, footnotes to tables, and figure captions. Do not use single spacing anywhere. Do not submit manuscripts typed in all capital letters.
Arrange the article in the following order: title page, text, references, acknowledgments, tables, figure captions, and figures. Do not include an abstract or a summary.
Include the following information on the title page:
- Title. Make the title brief but long enough to accurately describe the contents of the article and be useful for information retrieval.
- Deck. Include a deck (up to 25 words) to briefly describe the article in more detail.
- Authors' Byline. Include the names of all the authors, capitalizing only the initial letters. Spell out first names, if desired. Do not include academic degrees after the name. Indicate whether each author is a Member or Professional Member of IFT.
- Authors' Affiliation and Address. State each author's title and affiliation, including full address and zip code; e.g., Author Smith, a Professional Member of IFT, is President, Clinch Co., 3240 W. Albany St., Minneapolis, MN 55114. Author Jones is Research Scientist, Verona, Inc., 224 Halard Ave., Chicago, IL 60643.
- Telephone numbers and Email addresses. At the bottom of the page, indicate each author's telephone number and email address. Telephone numbers will not be published, but email addresses will appear.
Write the article in a feature style, not the standard scientific report style (See Food Technology for examples). Use active voice whenever possible.
Divide the article into sections and suggest headings ("subheads") that briefly describe the contents of each section. Capitalize only the first letter of each word in the subheads except articles and prepositions. Begin the subheads at the left margin. Do not underline the subheads.
Indicate subsections, if any, within these sections by numbers, letters, bullets (dots), or bullets followed by one or more words. These subsections should be preceded by a paragraph indent, and subsequent lines should begin at the left margin (as in this paragraph). Use only left justification.
Enumerate items within a paragraph with numbers (or lowercase letters) within parentheses; e.g., There are three types of preservation methods: (1) drying, (2) canning, and (3) freezing. Use footnotes only in tables, not in the text.
Do not end the article with a summary or conclusions section unless new information or thoughts are presented. Use a descriptive subhead rather than "Summary" or "Conclusions."
References in Text
Cite references in the text in the following ways:
- With the last name of the author as part of the sentence, immediately followed by the year of publication in parentheses; e.g., Smith ( 2003) reported growth on media.
- With last name of author and year of publication in parentheses, usually at the end of a sentence; e.g., The starch granules are normally elongated in the milk stage (Brown, 2006).
Trade names may be cited in the text of the article but not in the title. They should only be used the first time the item is mentioned. Place the appropriate trademark symbol (TM or ®) as a superscript following the name. Capitalize only the first letter of the trade name unless it is an acronym. Place the name and location (city and state) of the manufacturer in parentheses following the first mention of the trade name. Capitalize only the first letter of each word in the company name, unless it is an acronym.
Begin typing equations at the left margin. Type the equation in a straight line rather than stacked. If the equation runs more than one line, align the runover lines to the right of the equal sign. Distinguish between the number "one" (1) and the letter "el" (l), and between "zero" (0) and the capital letter "oh" (O).
Number all equations. Type the equation number in italic numerals within parentheses at the right margin of the final line of the equation.
Refer to equations by the abbreviation "Eq."
List of References
Type "References" at the left margin, capitalizing only the R; do not underline the word. Begin each reference at the left margin, and indent subsequent lines. Type all references double-spaced.
Make sure that each reference cited in the text is included in the reference list and that each reference in the list has been cited in the text; also that the names are spelled correctly in both the text and the reference list.
Include personal communications, unpublished manuscripts, and unpublished data in the list of references, with the author's affiliation and location; e.g., Smith, A. 2005. Personal communication. Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Arrange the references in alphabetical order. More than one paper by the same author (or authors) should be arranged in chronological order, except that papers by a single author should precede papers by two authors, which should in turn precede papers by three or more authors. Papers by three or more authors should be listed chronologically as though the authors were "Smith et al.," regardless of the first author's first initial; e.g., Smith, R., Jones, B., and Artz, W. 2003. would precede Smith, A., Artz, W., and Spiegal, V. 2007.
Type each reference in the following order: author(s), year, title, and bibliographic citation. See examples at end of this style guide
- Author. List all authors for each reference; do not use "et al." Surnames should precede initials; given names should not be spelled out. When the author is not indicated, "Anonymous" (not abbreviated) should be used. Organizations and government agencies may be cited as authors: e.g., IFT, ACS, FDA, USDA .
- Year. Use lowercase letters a, b, c, etc., following the year to distinguish among different publications by the same author(s) in any one year; e.g., Johnson, R. 1990a .
- Title and Bibliographic Information. Titles of publications in languages other than English should be given in the original language, where possible, using the English alphabet; transliterations or translations are acceptable for references originally in other alphabets.
For article and chapter titles, capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns. For book titles, capitalize all nouns and put the title within quotation marks. Do not underline the title. Italicize only those words that were underlined or italicized in the original, such as names of microorganisms.
A book title should be followed by the names of the editors, if any, and the name and location of the publisher.
A chapter title should be followed by "Chpt. in" and the book title, names of editors, inclusive page numbers of the chapter, and the name and location of the publisher.
A journal article title should be followed by the name of the journal, volume number, issue number in parentheses, colon, space, and all page numbers of the referenced item, not just the first page (e.g., Food Technol. 45(10): 86-88, 90). If the pages in the journal are numbered consecutively throughout the volume, omit the issue number. The name of the journal should be abbreviated. Retain the original word order when abbreviating, but omit articles, conjunctions, and prepositions, unless they are necessary for clarity. Do not abbreviate journal names consisting of a single word, or personal names when they begin a journal name. Do not underline or italicize the name of the journal.
Papers accepted for publication but not yet published should show the journal name followed by "In press." Do not list articles as "Submitted for publication" to a particular journal, because they might not be accepted by that journal; instead, list them as "Unpublished manuscript" and give the affiliation and location of the author.
Papers presented at scientific meetings but not published should indicate the date and location of the meeting and name of the sponsoring organization or the organization from which a copy can be obtained.
Acknowledgments to others for assistance, etc., should be brief. Place acknowledgments after the list of references. Do not include a heading.
If the article was based on a paper presented during a meeting, cite the meeting name, location, date, and sponsoring organization; e.g., Based on a paper presented during the symposium, "Bacteriophage-based interventions to improve food safety,” at the Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, Ill., July 17–21, 2010.
Do not repeat the same data in the text and in tables, or in both tables and figures.
Do not type tables in the body of the text. Instead, please send them as separate documents, set up in Table mode in Excel. Do not set up tables using a Word processing program.
Set up each table on a separate Excel file. (If it is necessary to continue a table on another page, type "(continued)" at the bottom of the first page of the table and "(Table 1, continued)" at the top of the subsequent page(s).)
Number tables in Arabic numerals. The table number should be followed by a descriptive title and/or caption. The table should be self-explanatory without reference to the text.
Do not use vertical lines in tables.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in column headings.
If the unit of measurement is the same for all data in a particular column, place the unit in parentheses under the column heading. Indicate footnotes by superscript letters, not numbers or symbols, assigned in alphabetical order from left to right and top to bottom.
Use superscript or regular letters, not asterisks, to indicate statistical significance.
Submit figures in an electronic format that are professional in appearance and illustrate the point being made. Do not repeat the same data in both tables and figures. Files should be high resolution (print optimized) at 300 dpi resolution and saved as .jpg, .tif, or .eps format files.
Submit high-resolution electronic images in either a .jpg, .tif, or .eps format. Send not only images that are specifically referred to in the article, but also images that can be used as full-page general illustrations ("mood shots") on the opening spread of the article or as the cover of the issue the article appears in.
Charts and Graphs
Submit original art work for charts and graphs. The charts and graphs should be clear, easy to read, and professional in appearance. Use sans-serif type if available. Also submit a list of data points in a Word or Excel document, so the art work can be reconstructed, if necessary.
Make all illustrations and labeling consistent in style and size.
Place labeling parallel to each axis. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and words that are normally capitalized. Abbreviate the units of measurement (without periods after the abbreviation) and place them in parentheses after the label. Center the labeling along the axis.
For lettering within the figure, use large enough letters (preferably sans-serif) so that they will be readable after reduction (see Food Technology for examples). Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and words that are normally capitalized.
For additional suggestions on preparing charts and graphs, see "A Primer on Using Visuals in Technical Presentations," by J.W. King and J. Rupnow, Food Technol. 46(5): 157-160, 165-168, 170 (1992).
Write captions that are self-explanatory without reference to the text.
If you have any high-resolution images (approx 8.5 inches x 11 inches at 300 dpi) that you think would be suitable to serve as a cover illustration for Food Technology or to illustrate your article, please submit it for consideration. Accepted file formats are .jpg, .tif, or .eps.
Association = Assn.
Company = Co.
Corporation = Corp.
Department = Dept.
Division = Div.
Equation = Eq.
Feet = ft
Figure = Fig.
Hours = hr
Inches = in
Incorporated = Inc.
Limited = Ltd.
Liters = L
Milliliters = mL
Minutes = min
Number = No.
Pounds = lb
Seconds = sec
Society = Soc.
Versus = vs
Use the two-letter zip code abbreviations (e.g., AZ, CA) only when they are accompanied by zip codes; in all other cases, use the traditional abbreviations (e.g., Ariz., Calif.).
Thiamine should be spelled thiamin, and vitamins B6 and B12 should be typed as vitamins B-6 and B-12.
How to Submit Manuscripts
Submit a Word or Word-compatible document of the manuscript with accompanying artwork via E-mail to the Editor (email@example.com).
Examples of References
Anonymous. 1994. Food Technology editors honored for excellence. Food Technol. 48(9): 17.
Mermelstein, N.H. 1993. Controlling E. coli O157:H7 in meat. Food Technol. 47(4): 90-91.
Rao, M.A. and Rizvi, S.S.H. 1994. "Engineering Properties of Foods, " 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
GAO. 1994. Food safety. Risk-based inspections and microbial monitoring needed for meat and poultry. Rept. GAO/RCED- 94-110. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.
Acton, J.C. and Dawson, P.L. 1994. Color as a functional property of proteins. Chpt. 12 in "Protein Functionality in Food Systems, " ed. N.S. Hettiarachchy and G.R. Ziegler, pp. 357-381. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Brenes, M., GarcÆa, P., Romero, C., and Garrido, A. 1993. Estudio de los factores que afectan a la velocidad de neutralizaciùn de la pulpa durante la elaboraciùn de aceitunas tipo negras. Grasa y Aceites 44: 190-194.
Paper Accepted/In Press
Ena, J.M., Van Beresteijan, E.C.H., Robben, A.I.P.M., and Schmidt, D.G. 1995. Whey protein antigenicity reduction by fungal proteinases and a pepsin/pancreatin combination. J. Food Sci. In press.
Yam, K.L. 1995. Designing modified-atmosphere packaging for fresh produce. Presented at Ann. Mtg., Inst. of Food Technologists, Anaheim, Calif., June 3-7.
Hine, W.S. 1994. Non-fat cheese sauce. U.S. patent 5,304,387.
FDA. 1994. Proposal to establish procedures for the safe processing and importing of fish andfishery products. Food and Drug Admin., Fed. Reg. 59: 4142-4214.
Carpenter, D.E. and Lee, S. 1993. AOAC methods and determination of fat. The Referee (AOAC Intl.) 19(19): 1-9. Cited in DeVries, J.W. and Nelson, A.L. 1994. Meeting analytical needs for nutrition labeling. Food Technol. 48(7): 73-79.
Nelson, K.A. and Labuza, T.P. 1994. Water activity and food polymer science: Implications of state on Arrhenius and WLF models in predicting shelf life. J. Food Eng. 22: 271-289. Abstr. 8A13 cited in Food Sci. Technol. Abstr. 26(8): 4 (1994).
Richburg, B.A. 1992. Machine vision microscopy as an on-line sensor for bioprocesses. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
Batt, C.A. 1993. Unpublished manuscript. Dept. of Food Science, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. Fuller, J.F. Jr. 1995. Personal communication. Heinz U.S.A., Pittsburgh, Pa.