A study published in the Journal of Food Science shows that pectin and inulin are the most efficient fat replacers for the development of low-fat cakes. The researchers replaced the fat in cakes from 35–100% with maltodextrin, inulin, oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein.
The researchers found that fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. However, replacing fat above 65% resulted in statistically significant decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. In addition, the cakes experienced a statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also, cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes.
The researchers concluded that fat replacement up to 65% resulted in cakes of acceptable properties. Pectin and inulin, which proved the most efficient fat replacers, can be used for the development of low-fat cakes.