JFS Abstract Details

Title Probiotic Dairy Products as Functional Foods
Abstract Original Articles Probiotic Dairy Products as Functional Foods Daniel Granato 1 Gabriel F Branco 1 Adriano Gomes Cruz 1 Jos de Assis Fonseca Faria 1 and Nagendra P Shah 1 1 Authors Granato and Branco are with Univ of So Paulo Dept of Food and Experimental Nutrition Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Av Prof Lineu Prestes 580 B14 05508-000 So Paulo So Paulo Brazil Authors Cruz and Faria are with Univ of Campinas (UNICAMP) Faculty of Food Engineering (FEA) Cidade Univ Zeferino Vaz- Caixa Postal 6121 13083-862 Campinas So Paulo Brazil Author Shah is with Victoria Univ School of Biomedical and Health Sciences Faculty of Health Engineering and Science P O Box 14428 Melbourne Vic 800 Australia Direct inquiries to author Granato (E-mail: granatod@gmailcom) Introduction The primary role of diet is to provide sufficient nutrients to meet metabolic requirements while giving the consumer a feeling of satisfaction and well-being Recent knowledge however supports the hypothesis that beyond meeting nutritional needs diet may modulate various physiological functions and may play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases (Koletzko and others 1998) There is a threshold of a new frontier in nutrition sciences and indeed at least in the Western world concepts in nutrition are expanding from the past emphasis on survival hunger satisfaction and prevention of adverse effects to an emphasis on the use of foods to promote a state of well-being improve health and reduce the risk of diseases These concepts are particularly important in light of the increasing cost of health care the steady increase in life expectancy and the desire of older people for improved quality of life (Roberfroid 2000) Historically the nutritional state of populations is affected by high intake of sugars salt saturated andtrans-fatty acids low intake of fibers vitamins and essential minerals These habits are the main causing problems of nontransmissible chronic-degenerative diseases Hence to reduce the risk of such illness the development of new food products that contain biologically active substances has been proposed (Roberfroid 2002) The termfunctional foodwas defined initially in Japan during the 1980s as foods for specific health use (FOSHU) However in accordance with the worldwide accepted definition functional food is coined to describe foods or nutrients whose ingestion leads to important physiological changes in the body that are separate and distinct from those associated with their role as nutrients (FDA 2004) All foods are functional at some physiological level because they provide nutrients or other substances that furnish energy sustain growth or maintainrepair vital processes However functional foods move beyond these necessities providing additional health benefits that may reduce disease risk andor promote optimal health Functional foods include conventional foods modified foods (fortified enriched or enhanced) medical foods and foods for special dietary use (ADA 2009) The Worldwide Market for Functional Foods In response to the increasing numbers of consumers interested in maximizing their health the food industry has developed an unprecedented variety of new functional food products which have increased the demand for such products in the marketplace At the current time the largest markets for functional foods and supplements are the United States Europe and Japan accounting for 336 282 and 209 of sales in 2003 respectively (Blandon and others 2007) The average North American consumer spends approximately US 8373 per year on functional foods and beverages resulting in a market exceeding US 2513 billion in 2007 In 2000 the worldwide market of functional foods generated US 3207 billion in 2005 this total was US 6839 billion (Justfood 2006) and the market is estimated to reach US 15541 billion after 2010 with a yearly growth potential of 10 (Research and Markets 2008) Around 60 or more of Americans either somewhat or strongly believe that certain foods and beverages can provide multiple health benefits and more than 80 say they are currently consuming or would be interested in consuming these foods andor beverages (ADA 2009) As the market for these products continues to expand food development involving functional ingredients such as probiotics will also continue to grow due to their alleged health effects Moreover advertising and combined marketing schemes mainly from processors of finished goods have significantly improved the level of consumer awareness of the different types of probiotics in the last 5 y Analysis of the North American probiotics markets for human nutrition found that the probiotics sector earned revenues of US 698 million in 2006 It is expected to reach US 170 billion in 2013 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 137 The fastest-growing sector within this market is probiotic beverages with a CAGR of 246 (Winter 2009) According to Winter (2009) 19 of North American adults in 2008 had purchased a preprobiotic yogurt in the previous 3 mo compared to 11 in 2006 Nearly twice as many women as men had consumed such products in 2008 at 24 and 13 respectively Individuals in the 45 to 54 age range were the most numerous purchasers at 30 Meanwhile in Europe consumption of probiotics is equally strong: between 2002 and 2007 consumption in Western Europe grew by 13 CAGR and consumption in Eastern Europe increased nearly by 18 CAGR In 2007 consumption in metric tonnes in Western and Eastern Europe was 1125 and 10151 respectively; the numbers are forecast to reach 1747 and 13205 by the year 2012 After the United States Europe is the main nutrition market in the world In 2003 this market reached US 5673 billion from which US 622 billion corresponded to herbalbotanical products and US 2071 billion to functional foods Within Europe Germany United Kingdom and France are the leading nutrition markets The functional food market value in 2003 in these countries was US 446 US 467 and US 401 billion respectively (Blandon and others 2007) In Europe the market for functional foods has experienced growth rates of 15 to 20 over the past 8 y although they still comprise a very small part of the total market In United Kingdom for example functional dairy products accounted for approximately 37 of the total value sales in the dairy sector in 1999 (Frewer and others 2003) In the United States of America the same figure was 52 Functional beverages had a market share of around 43 in United Kingdom whereas in the United States of America it was 98 (Euromonitor 2000) The European market for functional foods was estimated to be between US 4 and 8 billion in 2003 depending on which foods are regarded as functional This value had increased to around US 15 billion by 2006 (Kotilainen and others 2006) The current market share of functional foods is still below 1 of the total food and drink market Germany France United Kingdom and the Netherlands represent the most important countries within the functional food market in Europe (Makinen-Aakula 2006) Latin America is considered an emerging functional food and natural health product market where cultural factors low levels of knowledge about nutrition and income constraints limit the penetration of such products Nevertheless in large urban areas such as Buenos Aires and So Paulo there is a considerable number of health-conscious consumers who have the capacity to purchase functional foods (Lajolo 2002) In this context Brazil and Mexico are the markets considered to have the greatest potential as they have an emerging and growing consumer base with a strong and growing economy (Benkouider 2005) The nutrition sector in Latin America sold around US 367 billion in 2003 of which US 530 million or 144 was functional foods (Blandon and others 2007) In Brazil the sales of functional foods in 2007 reached US 500 thousand corresponding to almost 1 of the total food sales Moreover around 65 of the total Brazilian functional foods are probiotic products (Cruz and others 2007) Other countries have also shown potential for growth in the functional food market With growth in per capita incomes in emerging and transition economies for example Hungary Poland and Russia there is a potential for the establishment of markets for functional foods and natural health products (Benkouider 2005; Kotilainen and others 2006) Indeed these markets are considered to have some of the greatest growth potential in coming years In 2003 the total nutrition sector in Eastern Europe and Russia was valued at US 225 billion of which US 550 million (244) was for functional foods (Blandon and others 2007) Functional Foods: Concepts and Outlook With an increase in humam life expectancy and the exponential growth of health care costs society needs to overcome new challenges through the development of new scientific knowledge and technologies that result in important modifications in people's life style (Kwak and Jukes 2001) This tendency and advances in food sciencetechnology are providing the food industry with increasingly effective techniques to control and improve the physical structure and the chemical composition of food products creating functional foods that provide attributes beyond nourishing properties (Behrens and others 2001) The healthnutrition paradigm has changed significantly during the past 2 decades Today food is not merely viewed as a vehicle for essential nutrients to ensure proper growth and development but as a route to optimal wellness This food as medicine paradigm will continue to be driven by several key factors including increased consumer interest in controlling their own health; demographics including increases in the elder and ethnic subpopulations; escalating health care costs; a highly competitive food market with small profit margins; advances in technology such as biotechnology nanotechnology nutrigenomics and changes in food regulations and evidence-based science linking diet to reduction in nontransmissible chronic disease risks (American Dietetic Association 2009) Functional foods are those that contain 1 or more compound that provide important or limited functions in the organism promoting welfare and health or for reduction in the risk and protection of hypertension diabetes cancer osteoporosis and heart diseases (Arihara and others 2004) These foods present a potential to promote health through mechanisms not foreseen in conventional nutrition with the need to be pointed out that these effects restrict them to the promotion of well-being and health by maximizing physiological functions of a person and not for the cure of illnesses (Sanders 1998; Roberfroid 2000) Functional foods generally contain 1 or more beneficial compounds such as prebiotic probiotic antioxidant polyphenols and sterols carotenoids and others (Shah 2001; Andlauer and Frst 2002; Granato and others 2010a) Using the United States Food and Drug Administration regulations as a model ADA (2009) categorized functional food according to its properties Conventional Foods which are unmodified whole foods or conventional foods such as fruits and vegetables represent the simplest form of a functional food For example tomatoes raspberries kale or broccoli are considered functional foods because they are rich in such bioactive components as lycopene ellagic acid lutein and sulforaphane respectively Modified foods are functional foods that include those that have been modified through fortification enrichment or enhancement These include calcium-fortified orange juice (for bone health) folate-enriched breads (for proper fetal development) or foods enhanced with bioactive components such as margarines containing plant stanol or sterol esters (for lowering high cholesterol) and beverages enhanced with energy-promoting ingredients marketed to consumers such as ginseng guarana or taurine Modifying foods through biotechnology to improve their nutritional value and health attributes may also bring new functional foods to the marketplace such as increased -3 fatty acids or absence oftransfat although the topic remains controversial A medical food represents a food that is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements based on recognized scientific principles are established by medical evaluation Examples of medical foods include oral supplements in the form of phenylketonuria formulas free of phenylalanine and diabetic renal and liver formulations Lastly foods for special dietary use have a particular use for which a food purports or is represented to be used including but not limited to the following: supplying a special dietary need that exists by reason of a physical physiological pathological or other condition; supplying a vitamin mineral or other ingredient for use by humans to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; supplying a special dietary need by reason of being a food for use as the sole item of the diet Examples of such foods include infant foods hypoallergenic foods such as gluten-free foods and lactose-free foods and foods offered for reducing weight According to Hamilton-Miller and others (1999) the food industry has to satisfy the demands of the consumer to succeed in promoting the consumption of functional probiotic products Viana and others (2008) conducted a study to evaluate the perception and the attitudes toward probiotic foods of the population in the city of Rio de Janeiro Brazil In general the study found that the population was confused with respect to probiotic foods and the benefits arising from their consumption Therefore the food industry should focus on an elementary easy-to-understand educational program using accessible language to increase the awareness related to these products and of the health benefits probiotic products may confer if consumed along with a balanced diet Development of Functional Foods: Importance Trends and Steps Innovation is today's business mantra Pundits proclaim that the only hope for business survival is the ability to continue innovating In this context the development of new functional food products turns out to be increasingly challenging as it has to fulfill the consumer's expectations for products that are simultaneously palatable and healthy (Shah 2007; Granato and others 2010b) According to Jousse (2008) new product development is a constant challenge for both scientific and applied research and it has been observed that designing of food is essentially a way of optimization of key ingredients to generate the best formulation However the technology applied to the product manufacture is considered to be as important as the ingredients For this purpose the primary aim of these industries is the determination of the optimum levels of key ingredients to obtain ideal sensory and physicochemical responses (Granato and others 2010a 2010b) The development and commerce of functional food products is rather complex expensive and risky as special requirements must be answered Consumer demands technical conditions and legislative regulatory background all key points for successful product development can only be completely covered by multinational companies Due to their well-known products reputation on the market adequate RD activities know-how and economic potential these companies possess the opportunity to introduce a brand-new product to the market (Sir and others 2008) Food products claiming a functional capacity toward promoting health extending beyond the general provision of essential nutrients are eagerly accepted by consumers and likely to result in a decrease in mortality and an increase in the quality of life within the population (Jew and Jones 2007) Therefore the development of functional foods is an opportunity to contribute to an improvement in their quality in addition to boosting consumer health and well-being Moreover over the years development of functional food has enjoyed an increased interest by commercial industrial and academic sectors (Rodrguez and others 2003) Rendering the concept into a marketable and acceptable product represents a considerable challenge (Kruger and Mann 2003) In many instances substantial hurdles surround proper formulation and the assurance that the product possesses acceptable qualities (Frewer and others 2003; Bagchi and others 2004) Foods that incorporate entities with the best possible taste mouth-feel and stability without any side effect attributes will hold the greatest possibility of seeing a concept translated into a successful product (Heller 2006) However the acceptance to a specific functional ingredient and consequently a functional food is linked to the consumer's knowledge of the health effects of specific ingredients Therefore functional ingredients that are in the mind of consumers for a relatively long period of time such as vitamins fiber and minerals achieve considerably higher rates of consumer acceptance than ingredients that have had visibility for only a short period of time such as flavonoids carotenoids and -3 fatty acids In the latter cases consumers often do not know the health benefits of the specific groups of ingredients and therefore are not able to clearly assess any health effects The health image of a functional food product or a specific ingredient represents a necessary prerequisite but cannot be regarded as being sufficient for a possible market success (Menrad 2003) According to Sir and others (2008) one of the 1st steps of functional food product development is to identify consumer expectation toward the product From a consumer point of view the success of functional foods relies on a number of inter-related factors including the level of concern about general health and different medical conditions the belief that it is possible to influence one's own health and awareness and knowledge of foodsingredients that are supposed to be beneficial This is a key point for the success of any functional product in the market According to Roberfroid (2000) a food product can be made functional by eliminating a component known to cause or that is identified as causing a deleterious effect when consumed (an allergenic protein lactose phenylanine); by increasing the concentration of a component naturally present in food to a point at which it will induce predicted effects (fortification with a micronutrient to reach an intake higher than the recommended daily intake but compatible with the dietary guidelines for reducing risk of disease); by increasing the concentration of a nonnutritive component to a level known to produce a beneficial effect; by adding a component that is not normally present in most foods and is not necessarily a macronutrient or a micronutrient but for which beneficial effects have been shown (nonvitamin antioxidants or prebiotic fructans); by replacing a component usually a macronutrient whose intake is usually excessive and thus a cause of deleterious effects; or by increasing bioavailability or stability of a component known to produce a functional effect or to reduce the disease-risk potential of the food From a research and development point of view functional foods represent a territory where the expertise of food technologists nutritionists medical doctors and food chemists must be combined to obtain innovative products at least maintaining the qualitative standard of the traditional foods On the other hand these foods must be able to modulate a physiological parameter related to the health status or disease prevention (Fogliano and Vitaglione 2005) The design and development of functional foods is a scientific challenge that should rely on certain processes (Walzem 2004) It begins with basic relevant scientific knowledge of functions sensitive to modulation by food components that are pivotal to maintenance of health and that when altered may be linked to a change in the risk of a disease (Hasler 1998) The next is the exploitation of this knowledge in the development of markers that can be shown to be relevant to the key functions (Kwak and Jukes 2001) The following step is a new generation of hypothesis-driven human intervention studies that will include the use of these validated relevant markers and allow the establishment of effective and safe intakes (Mazza 2000) The final step is the development of advanced techniques for human studies that preferably are minimally invasive and applicable on a large scale (Pascal 1996) Second regulatory bodies have become increasingly cognizant and supportive of the public health benefits of functional foods Accordingly governmental frameworks are now well developed in countries such as Japan that allow more than 500 functional foods to be marketed under existing FOSHU directives (International Association of Consumer Food Organizations 1998) Third governments looking at regulatory issues for functional foods are more aware of the economic potential of these products as part of public health prevention strategies However to date the cost savings that might be realized have not been assessed (Noonan and Noonan 2004) Processes for the systematic investigation of existing data linking functional foods to physiological mechanisms that affect disease risk have been developed; however the robustness of the process varies considerably from country to country (Jones 2002) Although regulations for functional foods have not yet been well established in many countries this situation has not been a significant barrier to the development of novel functional products in the food industry (Eve 2000; Hutt 2000) Unfortunately in certain jurisdictions restrictive health claim environments have resulted in substantial challenges in terms of communication of the foodhealth relationship to the general public (Noonan and Noonan 2004) However it is expected that a more restrictive legislation on health claims will increase the quality of the research carried out by food companies (Fogliano and Vitaglione 2005) Globally regulatory systems vary widely with some countries such as Japan allowing over 500 functional foods while other countries such as Canada allow a much more limited number of health claims Such restrictions have been challenged successfully in courts of law (Yamaguchi 2005) Securing specific messages on foods attesting to their health benefits represents a vital part of the cycle of moving a functional food from concept to a marketing success story (Rodrguez and others 2003) Given that consumers are both interested and wish to be informed about foods that confer health benefits beyond simply providing nutrients the presence of an informative authoritative claim on a food will stimulate the market share penetration of that product within its sector (Pimentel and others 2005) Such an increase in market share will promote further growth by leading to additional conceptstheories to be elaborated and tested thus reinitiating the cycle Ultimately the successful development of any successful functional foods will stem from a balance between the obstacles surrounding regulation and available science versus the demands of the commercial market (Heller 2006) Developing a new functional food is an expensive process Food companies have traditionally funded research for new food product formulations but the stakes are higher for functional foods for both food companies and consumers (Walzem 2004) Government incentives such as a period of exclusivity or tax reduction would encourage food companies to pursue functional food development by ensuring a profitable return on successful products (IFT 2007) Product development requires detailed knowledge of both products and customers The high reported failure rates for new international functional foods suggest a failure to manage customer knowledge effectively as well as the lack of knowledge of management between the functional disciplines involved in the new product development process (Jousse 2008) These failures are only partially due to the intrinsic risk associated with this kind of new products In fact in many cases it is possible to pick out mistakes in the research and development which can be avoided by more accurate strategies (Fogliano and Vitaglione 2005) The methodologies that advance both a firm's understanding of the customer's choice motives and the value systems and its knowledge management process can increase the chances of new product success in the international functional market The commercial success of probiotic products ultimately depends on taste and appeal to the consumer The consumer needs to receive a comprehensive and reasonable message about probiotics without any exaggeration (Prado and others 2008) Moreover consumer knowledge and awareness of the health effects of newly developed functional ingredients seem to be rather limited therefore there is a strong need for specific communication activities to consumers in this respect The message of the health effect of a specific product should be transferred via credible media reports in a relatively simple way so that it can easily be understood by all segments of population (Sir and others 2008) According to Fogliano and Vitaglione (2005) efficiency verification is a major problem in functional food development To verify specific physiological relevance of food consumption a suitable and measurable marker must be indicated This marker should be linked with certainty to the physiological effect that can be measured using a solid well-known and worldwide accepted procedure In addition to resources and know-how in nutritional and food technology research the proof of efficacy of functional food products requires knowledge in the medical field as well To fulfill the strict requirements of scientific verification of the efficacy of functional food statistically validated data from different model systems from mechanistic examinations on the cellular and molecular level from retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies as well as from intervention studies on humans have to be presented (Menrad 2003) Recently Granato and others (2010c) evaluated the development and acceptance of probiotic products They emphasized that the development of a new nondairy probiotic food is an expensive process and requires detailed knowledge of the products and the customer base which is why quantitative and qualitative marketing studies must be carried out before launching any product The commercial success of any functional food especially the ones containing probiotic strains ultimately depends on taste appearance price and health claim appeal to consumers Hence the food industry takes into consideration all these factors to develop or reengineer functional food products Moreover other aspects such as physicalchemical stability packaging design and functionality shelf-life sensory appeal functional properties health claim proof by means of clinical trialsin vitroassays elaboration of safety issues and dose effect studies must also be considered Thus the development of a functional food is a multistage process that requires input from commercial academic and regulatory interests with a critical need to achieve acceptance by consumers (Neves 2005; Granato and others 2010a) It is only through these partners working cooperatively through the multiple elements of the continuum from concept to successful marketing of functional foods that this sector will see continued growth and sustainability (Jew and Jones 2007) Probiotics as Functional Foods: Definitions Among the foods whose alleged health claims have been widely promoted in the media during the past few years and that present multidimensional studies for technological and industrial uses the ones with probiotic strains stand out (Lourens-Hattingh and Viljoen 2001) The dairy sector which is strongly linked to probiotics is the largest functional food market accounting for nearly 33 of the broad market while cereal products have just over 22 (Leatherhead Food International 2006) Moreover in recent years per capita consumption of yogurt has increased drastically because many do consumers associate yogurt with good health (Hekmat and Reid 2006) Although the concept of probiotics was introduced in the early 20th century the term was not coined until the 1960s The definition of the term has evolved through the years According to Fooks and others (1999) the wordprobioticderives from 2 Greeks words that meanfor life This term was 1st used to describe a microbial substance that stimulated the growth of other microorganisms (Lilley and Stillwell 1965) or tissue extracts that promoted microbial growth (Sperty 1971) but it did not receive general acceptance Parker (1974) was the 1st author to use the word probiotic in the context of animal supplementation and it was defined as organisms and substances that contributed to the balance of the intestinal flora Fuller (1989) defined probiotics as food supplements containing live microorganisms that affect the host in a healthy way balancing the intestinal flora Many other definitions of the term probiotic have been published since (Sanders 2003); however the most widely accepted definition is that probiotics are live microorganisms administrated in certain quantities that confer health benefits to the host (FAOWHO 2001) Although various strains of lactic acid bacteria have been described as probiotic relatively few meet the standards of the United Nations of having clinical trial documentation and many are too sensitive to intense acidity and presence of bile salts in the human gastrointestinal tract so they die en route to the gut (Hekmat and Reid 2006) The majority of probiotic products available in the marketplace contain species ofLactobacillusandBifidobacterium which are the main genera of Gram-positive bacteria currently characterized as probiotics (FAOWHO 2001) Different species of probiotic microorganisms have been employed in the food industry such as:Lactobacillus acidophilus L casei L johnsonii L rhamnosus L thermophilus L reuteri L delbrueckiisubspbulgaricus Bifidobacterium bifidum B longum B brevis B infantis andB animalis(Knorr 1998)Lactobacillus delbrueckiisppbulgaricus andStreptococcus thermophilusare found in a number of preparations such as traditional yogurts frozen yogurts and in desserts in some places (Senok 2009) According to Holzapfel and Schillinger (2002) other lacticacid bacteria with probiotic properties are:Enterococcus faecalis E faeciumSporolactobacillus inulinus while the microorganismsPropionibacterium freudenreichiiandSaccharomyces cerevisiaeare now mentioned as nonlactic microorganisms associated with probiotic activities especially in pharmaceutical and animal products It is important to emphasize that other bacteria have been tested to check for probiotic potential such asLactococcus lactissspcremoris Leuconostoc mesenteroidessspdextranicum Lactococcus lactisssplactis Saccharomyces boulardii andPediococcus acidilactici among others It is debatable whether or not yogurt starter cultures (S thermophilusandL delbrueckiisspbulgaricus) should be considered as probiotics (Tejada-Simon and others 1999; Pestka and others 2001) Although they have been associated with improved lactose digestion and immune enhancement they fail to fulfill the criteria for a probiotic microorganism as they are sensitive to conditions in the digestive tract and do not survive in the gut in very high numbers Safety concerns remain about the other genera such asEscherichiaandEnterococcus which have been marketed as probiotics (Eaton and Gasson 2001; Ishibashi and Yamazaki 2001; Senok and others 2005) It is of concern that some nondairy products that containEnterococcuscan be an important cause of drug-resistant nosocomial infections A previous study has now demonstrated the transfer of virulence determinants from medical to food starter strains inEnterococcusvia a natural conjugation process (Ishibashi and Yamazaki 2001) HoweverLactobacillusandBifidobacteriumspecies are the ones that present more available data about their mechanisms of action and efficiencyin vivoin vitro in clinical studies and in tests with Wistar rats (Reid 1999) There are some ideal properties of the probiotic strains that would benefit human health and could be used in the probiotics industry These include resistance to acid and bile; attachment to the human gut epithelial cells; colonization in the human intestine; production of antimicrobial substances including bacteriocins; good growth characteristics and beneficial effects on the human health One of the most important characteristics of a probiotic strain is that it must be nonpathogenic and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) Probiotics must also present some desirable characteristics such as maintenance of viability during processing and storage ease of application in products and resistance to the physicochemical processing of the food (Prado and others 2008) These bacteria should not be pathogenic toxic mutagenic or carcinogenic in the host organism must be antagonistic to pathogens and be genetically stable without a plasmid transfer mechanism especially concerning antibiotic resistance; they must survive during digestion and possess the ability to adhere and colonize the gut mucosa promoting immuno-stimulation without inflammatory effects (Saarela and others 2000) It is important to report that these bacteria should be present in a dairy food to a minimum level of 106 CFUg or the daily intake should be about 108 CFUg with the aim to compensate for the possible reduction in the number of the probiotic microorganisms during the passage through the gut (Shah 2007) Some Health Effects of Probiotic Microorganisms It is believed in academia that probiotic microorganisms can improve health and through media and marketing the population must become more aware of this To supply growing demand the food industry has been developing new probiotic products Some specific strains of lactic acid bacteria such asL acidophilus L casei B longum L fermentum L rhamnosus L reuteri L crispatus L plantarum B animalis andB lactisare in the market and provide good profit for several companies In this context other probiotic beverages and yogurts have been developed both in academic and industrial sectors to offer new sources of improved products to the consumers in Brazil as illustrated in Table 1 However this market still has an enormous growth potential since most available products are either yogurts or fermented milks withB animalisandL acidophilus Several health benefits are attributed to the ingestion of probiotic-containing foods some of them have been proven scientifically (Figure 1) and others still require further studies in humans The main science-based benefits related to probiotics are: antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities (Lourens-Hattingh and Viljoen 2001) anticarcinogenic properties (Marteau and others 2001) antihypertension properties (Liong and others 2009) beneficial effects on mineral metabolism especially regarding bone stability (Arunachalam 1999) attenuation of symptoms of bowel disease and Crohn's syndrome (Marteau and others 2001) reduction of food allergies symptoms (Salminen and others 1998a) and reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels (Sindhu and Khetarpaul 2003) Some Lactobacillus strains have also shown suppression of pathogenic microorganisms such asSalmonella enteritidis Escherichia coli Shigella sonnei andSerratia marcescens(Drago and others 1997) Probiotic bacteria are shown to promote the endogenous host defense mechanisms as well In addition to the effects of probiotics on nonimmunologic gut defense which is characterized by stabilization of the gut microflora (Salminen and others 1998b) probiotic bacteria have been shown to enhance humoral immune responses and thereby promote the intestine's immunologic barrier (Kaila and others 1992) Moreover probiotic bacteria have been shown to stimulate nonspecific host resistance to microbial pathogens (Perdign and others 1986; Perdign and others 1998) and to modulate the host's immune responses to potentially harmful antigens with a potential to down-regulate hypersensitivity reactions There is no doubt that dairy products are the main vehicle for probiotic supplementation Hence it is no wonder that there is a wide number of clinical studies that report the health effects of probiotic strains Indeed the consumption of probiotic yogurts and fermented dairy beverages (Majamaa and Isolauri 1997; Urbanska and others 2009) cheeses (Medici and others 2005; Hatakka and others 2001) and ice creams (aglar and others 2008) have been reported to promote health benefits Other food matrices such as fruit juices vegetable juices and other nondairy probiotic products have been shown to provide health benefits in humans (Jahreis and others 2002; Wagar and others 2009) These findings show that both dairy and nondairy probiotic products may display important physiological effects on humans; however more studies should be carried out to test different products and probiotic strains Majamaa and Isolauri (1997) evaluated the clinical and immunologic effects of cow's milk with or without the addition ofLactobacillusGG (5 108 colony forming unitsg formula) in an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with atopic eczema and allergy due to cow's milk The 2nd part of the study involved 10 breast-fed infants who had atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy In this groupLactobacillusGG was given to nursing mothers Clinical score of atopic dermatitis improved significantly during the 1-month study period in infants treated with the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula fortified withLactobacillusGG The concentration of al-antitrypsin decreased significantly (P 003) in this group but not in the group receiving the whey formula withoutLactobacillusGG (P 068) In parallel the median (lower quartile to upper quartile) concentration of fecal tumor necrosis factor- decreased significantly in this group from 709 pggm (91 to 1131 pggm) to 34 pggm (19 to 103 pggm) (P 0003) but not in those receiving the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula only (P 038) These results suggest that probiotic bacteria may promote endogenous barrier mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy and by alleviating intestinal inflammation may act as a useful tool in the treatment of food allergy Probiotics as a part of the intestinal flora play an important role in the induction and development of colon cancer by reducing the incidence and number of tumors The endogenous flora and the immune system take part on the modulation of carcinogenesis Probiotics may influence both and this led to trials investigating the role of probiotics in preventing or curing tumors on animals (Wollowski and others 2001) The probiotic effect that remains the most controversial is the anticancer activity attributed to certain lactic acid bacteria possibly by counteracting mutagenic and genotoxic effects that are evident byin vitroandin vivoanimal models studies; dietary intervention studies in humans and epidemiological studies correlating cancer to certain dietary regimes Studies of the effect of probiotic consumption on cancer appear promising Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a liver disease that can be life threatening The exact pathogenesis of HE still remains unknown The probioticsS thermophilus bifidobacteriaL acidophilusL plantarumL caseiL delbrueckiisspbulgaricus andE faecumcontaining therapeutic effect have multiple mechanisms of action that could disrupt the pathogenesis of HE and may make them superior to conventional treatment and lower portal pressure with a reduction in the risk of bleeding (Solga 2003) Thirty patients with chronic juvenile arthritis were randomly allocated to receiveLactobacillusGG or bovine colostrum for a 2-week period (Malin and others 1997) Immunological and nonimmunological gut defences were investigated in blood and faeces It has been observed by different researchers that gut defence mechanisms are disturbed in chronic juvenile arthritis and orally administeredLactobacillusGG has potential to reinforce mucosal barrier mechanisms in this disorder has been suggested Children with HIV infections have episodes of diarrhoea and frequently experience malabsorption associated with possible bacterial overgrowth Administration ofL plantarum299v can be given safely to immunocompromised hosts may have a positive effect on immune response The immune response may further be enhanced when one or more probiotics are consumed together and work synergistically as seems to be the case whenLactobacillusis administered in conjunction with bifidobacteria (Cunningham-Rundles and others 2000) In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study the oral application ofB lactisBb12 to preterm infants who are prone to intestinal infections and necrotizing enterocolitis improved several health-associated markers (Mohan and others 2008) In the probiotic group the fecal pH was significantly lower than in the placebo group in accordance with the higher fecal concentrations of acetate and lactate in the infants receiving Bb12 Fecal calprotectin was lower in the probiotic group suggesting a reduced inflammation of the intestinal mucosa A higher fecal IgA level in the Bb12 group indicates an improved mucosal antibody-based defense However weight gain in the 1st weeks of life one of the most critical clinical parameters in preterm infants was only improved by the probiotic when the children were also treated with antibiotics Some other physiological benefits of probiotic strains are: regulation of the intestinal flow treatment of diarrhea cholesterol reduction increase in lactose tolerance improvement in absorption of iron and calcium reduction of toxic compounds in the organism boosting of the immunological system and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea improved urogenital health prevention of cancer and suppressing tumors detoxification of carcinogens reduction of catabolic products eliminated by kidney and liver prevention of arteriosclerosis (reduction of serum cholesterol) prevention of osteoporosis better development (growth) improved well-being synthesized nutrients (folic acid niacin riboflavin vitamins B6 and B12) increasing nutrient bioavailability prevention of intestinal tract infections (bacteria or virus inducedCandida enteritisHelicobacter pyloriulcus neoplasia) regulation of gut motility (constipation irritable bowel syndrome) decreased diarrhea induced by antitubercular chemotherapy and probiotic cultures also improveterminate colitis Other reviews should be consulted for more details about other health benefits provided by probiotics Probiotics and Some Considerations Regarding Cell Viability During Storage The maintenance of functionality of probiotics in a dairy matrix is related to various intrinsic barriers existing in the processing Given the limited proteolytic activity of probiotic bacteria on milk casein it is often necessary to supplement the dairy matrix with sources of nitrogen such as hydrolyzed protein whey derivatives and amino acids for use by the probiotic bacteria This strategy has been extensively performed (Dave and Shah 1998; Antunes and others 2004; Antunes and others 2005; Zhao and Zhang 2006) and positive impacts have been observed on the viability of probiotic strains and on the product qualitysyneresis and firmness in case of yogurt and fermented milk However it is necessary to consider the economics of this strategy as well as the optimization of the quantity of supplement for addition to the product The compatibility between the compound to be added and the probiotic strain used in the product also deserves further investigation since some strains may have variable uptake of the compound affecting its performance in products such as yogurt (Sodini and others 2005) In general it is important and prudent that the probiotic strains used are compatible with the starter acid lactic cultures conventionally used in the processing of dairy products Firstly with regard to the chosen strains for both the yogurt and the process these should be compatible with each other and between themselves avoiding problems such as inhibition by acid peroxide bacteriocins and other metabolites that may affect logistics process yield and final product quality by slowing the acidification kinetics Inhibition problems between starter and probiotic cultures have been reported and cannot be neglected (Joseph and others 1998; Vinderola and others 2002) during the manufacturing of probiotic yogurts There seems to be a great compatibility between certain strains that allows the proper development of both in the product matrix (Saccaro and others 2009) It also has been noted that the proper compatibility may influence adherence to the intestinal mucosa (Collado and others 2007) which may directly influences the product functionality Preliminary tests to verify the compatibility of microbial cultures are not difficult to perform and in a more simplified way can be solved by continued use of cultures from the same supplier The low pH values that probiotic bacteria are submitted to during the processing of dairy products such as yogurts and fermented milk is also a matter of concern With the exception of a fewLactobacillusandLeuconostocspecies lactic acid bactria are neutrophilic that is have optimum growth pH between 5 and 9 Acid tolerance (AT) in this group increases in 2 different physiological states: during the exponential phase where an adaptive response known as L-ATR can be triggered through exposure of the microorganism to environments with low but not lethal pH; and after the entry of stationary phase where AT grows as a result of an induced exposure to general stress this response being independent of environment pH (van de Guchte and others 2002) However it has been shown that AT in some probiotic strains triggers only in stationary phase (Waddington and others 2010) Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have some ways to express their AT being the presence of FoF1-ATPase enzyme the most important This enzyme has multiple subunits comprising a catalytic portion (F1) which incorporates subunits and to APT hydrolysis and a membrane portion (Fo) incorporating subunits a b and c FoF1-ATPase function is twofold: firstly it serve as a mechanism for ATP synthesis and subsequently as a mean of exclusion of protons However since probiotic strains do not have respiratory chain the enzyme activity comes down to the later function (Corcoran and others 2007) In fact FoF1-ATPase is crucial for homeostasis maintenance at low pH and its presence has been verified in several probiotic strains such asL caseiandB longum(Matsumoto and others 2004; Takahashi and others 2007; Chen and others 2009; Waddington and others 2010) even if having maximum activity at different pH values The simplest technological solution to face the acid stress is to promote a previous strain exposure to lower pH values for a short period of time thereby inducing a tolerance of the microorganism (Sanz 2007) that has been successfully applied (Maus and Ingham 2003) Additionally it may result in technological advantages in that acid-resistant strains showed a higher rate of fermentation and enzymatic activity such as glucosidases which favor its metabolic function and survival in the gut (Sanz 2007) In industrial plants strain viability represents a demand for technical staff and proper structure for tests reinforcing the need of an ongoing dialogue with the probiotic culture supplier to obtain data regarding its physiology and characterization In terms of process care should be taken with respect to the final pH of the fermentation during the yogurt manufacturing Packaging is another important point regarding probiotic dairy foods It is known that probiotic bacteria prefer an anaerobic or microaerobic environment thus the exposure of such microorganisms to oxygen in a packaging may result in lower viability (Talwalkar and Kailasapathy 2004) During processing of yogurts and ice creams oxygen is incorporated in some unit operations such as stirring (yogurts) and mixing of ingredients (ice creams) The oxygen alone cannot cause a significant damage in the bacteria cell; however when water is present oxygen can be reduced and may form reactive oxygen species (ROS) substances that are toxic to the strains (Corcoran and others 2007) In fact these ROS such as superoxide (O2) and hydroxide anion (OH) attack proteins lipids and nucleic acids which cause the cell death Ahn and others (2001) confirmed this fact by showing that the exposure ofB longumto oxygen led to inhibition of growth Some alternatives such as addition of ascorbic acid (Dave and Shah 1998) eletroreduction of milk (Bolduc and others 2006) use of materials with a strong barrier to oxygen (Miller and others 2002) use of other active packagings (Miller and others 2003) microencapsulation (Talwalkar and Kailasapathy 2003) and use of plastic packagings with different polarities (Jasson and others 2001) have been mentioned to minimize the oxidative stress in probiotic dairy products especially in yogurts Cruz (2010) concluded that the use of glucose oxidase may be a suitable biotechnological tool to minimize the oxygen in yogurts Zhao and Li (2008) proposed a chemical solution for the oxidative stress and the acid stress in dairy probiotic products containingL acidophilusandB bifidum the so-called destressing effect For the former the addition of sodium citrate or calcium carbonate is made to neutralize the lactic acid produced during the fermentation process For the latter the addition of an antioxidant substance such as sodium ascorbate or D-ascorbate (4 gkg) would be enough to react with ROS and hence eliminate the stress caused by oxygen Cruz and others (2007) concluded that it is necessary to optimize several technological and economical aspects of the manufacturing process of these products including the development of packaging materials that adequately protect and preserve the therapeutic activity of probiotic microorganisms The use of appropriate packaging materials and systems is important to safeguard the improvements introduced in the manufacturing process as a whole and ensure that the product lives up to the expectations of the people who consume them guaranteeing the preservation of the full therapeutic potential of the probiotic properties throughout storage shelf life Another drawback related to probiotic viability during storage is the cold stress which is observed in yogurts cheeses desserts and ice creams Cold temperatures reduce the membrane fluidity as well as influence DNARNA functions related to the transcription and translation Other consequences of cold stress are the reduction of enzymatic activity and the increase of sensitiveness toward sodium chloride which may cause damage in the membrane (Corcoran and others 2007) Dairy Probiotic Products and Their Sensory Qualities A dairy probiotic product must present not only the minimum number of cells to confer health effects but also sensory acceptance by consumers Thus sensory evaluation of such products must be performed throughout the whole processing to prevent eventual problems during commercialization Favaro-Trindade and others (2006) verified that a probiotic ice cream with acerola pulp did not display a suitable acceptance while Khorokhavar and Mortazavian (2009) developed a probiotic stirred beverage added withL acidophiluswith low acceptability due to off-flavors In general all probiotic foods must be safe and have good sensory properties They must also include specific probiotic strains at a suitable level during storage (usually 106 107 CFUg) which must be able to be incorporated into foods without producing off-flavors For example bifidobacteria produce acetic and lactic acids in the proportion of 3:2 The taste and aroma of acetic acid provide extremely undesirable off-flavors to dairy products and might require the use of flavoring agents so as to minimize or mask this defect known as probiotic flavor An effective alternative to overcome this possible undesired consequence caused by the presence of these cultures is the addition of microencapsulated cells of probiotic cultures to dairy food products (Arai and others 1996) Also the adjunct of probiotic cells without fermentation is a good technique to overcome the probiotic flavor problem Therefore sensory properties and consumer acceptance must be studied before launching new products in the market The success of sensory evaluations regarding probiotic products (dairy and nondairy) depends on the methodology applied and the inclusion of similar nonprobiotic products in the test to obtain scientific sound results and also to analyze the main positivenegative points of the food product (Cruz and others 2010) For example it has been reported that probiotic yogurts displayed similar sensory acceptance to nonprobiotic yogurts (Hekmat and Reid 2006; Hussain and others 2009) Sensory Properties of Probiotic Foods In fermented probiotic products it is important that the probiotic culture used contributes to good sensory properties Therefore it is quite common to use probiotic bacteria mixed together with other types of bacteria suited for the fermentation of the specific product Although probiotic cultures do not tend to strongly modify the sensory properties of the products to which they are added (Champagne and others 2005) in many cases consumers find products fermented withL delbrueckiispp bulgaricusto be too acidic and with too heavy an acetaldehyde flavor (typical yogurt flavor) Therefore probiotic cultures have been developed to bring out the preferred flavors in the products in which they are used Examples of such cultures are the so-called ABT cultures (ABT standing forL acidophilusBifidobacterium andS thermophilus) (Saarela and others 2000) There are several studies addressing sensory properties in probiotic foods and many of them show no change in acceptability when adding probiotics to dairy products Product appraisal to identify specific sensory attributes driving product acceptance is vital to the introduction of new dairy probiotic products in the marketplace An adequate application of sensory methodology allows one to obtain important results on the formulated probiotic dairy food providing prior knowledge with respect to its acceptance on the consumer market andor specific characteristics or a descriptive sensory profile serving as the foundation for making alterations or otherwise as required Whenever possible in the majority of cases it is important to analyze similar commercial products in parallel for comparative reasons (Cruz and others 2010) Sensory properties of probiotic yogurt It is well known that yogurt is the most used medium to incorporate probiotic bacteria in foods and in this regard research studies have optimized its sensory qualities to render a palatable product to consumers Hekmat and Reid (2006) conducted consumer taste panel evaluations to compare the sensory properties of probiotic and standard yogurt The results showed that the appearance flavor texture and overall quality of probiotic 1 fat yogurt were comparable and similar to standard 1 fat yogurt ThusL rhamnosusyogurt supplemented withL reuterihas sensory attributes suitable for human consumption Maragkoudakisa and others (2006) evaluated sensory properties of probiotic Greek yogurt with various addedLactobacillusstrains The yogurt containingL paracaseiexhibited a rich smooth and traditional taste not too acidic similar to its regular form showing good sensory acceptance among consumers Almeida and others (2009) evaluated the effect of adding aai pulp on the sensory features of probiotic yogurts with addedL acidophilusandB bifidumand defined the parameters for its use in processing The affective (acceptance) tests related that there were differences among the yogurts suggesting that the level of preference increased with an increase in the proportion of aca pulp in the yogurt formulation The main attributes contributing to acceptance of these products were flavor and color Therefore it is possible to produce probiotic yogurts with aa pulp with good sensory acceptance if respecting the other technological parameters involved Addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sensory characteristics of fat-free probiotic yogurt withL acidophilusandB longumwere analyzed by Antunes and others (2005) The acceptance tests were carried out by 30 subjects who used a 9-point nonstructured hedonic scale to evaluate the degree of liking of appearance flavor texture and overall impression The results showed that regular and WPC-added yogurt did not differ significantly (P 005) and had good sensory acceptance among consumers Kailasapathy (2006) studied the survival and the effect of free and calcium-induced alginatestarch encapsulated probiotic bacteria in yogurt withL acidophilusandB lactison pH exopolysaccharide production and influence on the sensory attributes of yogurt over 7 wk of refrigerated storage (4 C) A panel consisting of 20 members evaluated yogurt attributes after 7 wk of storage at 4 C Scoring was performed on a hedonic scale of 115 with 1 being most desirable Results showed that addition of probiotic cultures either in the free or encapsulated state did not significantly affect appearance and color acidity flavor and after-taste of the yogurts over the storage period However a significant difference in texture was reported Sensory properties of probiotic beverages Fermented beverages are the most traditional and consumed probiotics media for dairy and nondairy products Fermentation is usually an inexpensive process requires a low-cost technology and improves nutrition and sensory profiles of food Moreover many media can be used for these types of products: milk cereals fruits roots or even mixture of these From country to country different mixtures of ingredients and technologies are employed to develop many types of probiotic beverages as well outlined by Prado and others (2008) The focus on sensory acceptability is still the key factor for many researchers worldwide Sensory physical and chemical properties of a probiotic aai whey beverage were evaluated by Zoellner and others (2009) Sensory analysis supported the commercial potential of the aai-containing probiotic whey beverage withB longumBI-05 andL acidophilusLa-14 with 70 of the scores corresponding to extremely better than the standard and slightly better than the standard which had no probiotic bacteria Martn-Diana and others (2003) evaluated the sensory acceptance of a fermented probiotic goat milk drink containingL acidophilusandBBB-12 Sensory evaluation was carried out in fermented milk samples after 24 h of cold storage by 10 trained panelists Appearance aroma mouth-feel texture taste and overall acceptability of samples were scored on a hedonic scale of 1 to 10 The fermented goat milk supplemented with 3 WPC showed high overall acceptability similar to cow fermented milk The carbonation of probiotic pasteurized milk withL acidophilusandB bifidumwas studied by Vinderola and others (2000a) as a method for improving bacterial viability in fermented milk Sensory evaluation of carbonated and nonacidified milk was carried out after 24 d of cold storage by a panel of 20 trained members served at approximately 10 C The odor mouth-feel taste acidity and overall acceptability of samples were scored on a hedonic scale of 1 to 5 The higher acidity levels of carbonated and lactic acidified samples enhanced growth and metabolic activity of the starter during fermentation reducing incubation time The use of milk acidified with CO2 had no detrimental effects on the sensory properties of fermented milk and slightly enhanced mouth-feel taste acid acceptability and overall acceptability Hernandez-Mendoza and others (2007) developed and evaluated a whey-based probiotic product withL reuteriandB bifidum A triangle test to detect differences among the probiotic beverages was performed by 10 judges and preference tests were performed by 109 children (8 to 12 y old) from a local elementary school According to the sensory results and microbiological analysis obtained the treatment with 2L reuteriand 05B bifidumdiffered from the other 2 and had higher preference among consumers Moreover this product met the probiotic criterion by maintaining both bacterial populations greater than 106 CFUmL during the entire storage period Acidity and pH values did not change appreciably and no sensory changes were found during the 1st 14 d of storage after which a slight acidification was detected The study concluded that the final product preserved an acceptable flavor showing that this beverage may be attractive for entering the growing market of probiotics Antunes and others (2009) evaluated the sensory acceptability of a probiotic buttermilk-like fermented milk product flavored with different fruit flavors (strawberry vanilla mintgraviola andcupuau) and with added sucrose or sucralose Although the absence of comments about the typical buttermilk aroma was noted all the sucrose-added buttermilks presented the same performance in the acceptability test with the results ranging from like slightly to like moderately which corresponds to a 60 to 80 score on the 9-point hedonic scale The same behavior was noted for sucralose-added samples Sensory properties of probiotic ice cream and desserts Ice creams are food products that show great potential for use as vehicles for probiotic cultures with the advantage of being foods consumed by all age groups (Cruz and others 2009a) Although several factors in their processing stages should be optimized to maintain the microorganisms in viable doses capable of providing therapeutic activity to consumers these probiotic cultures usually do not modify significantly the sensory features of ice creams and frozen desserts It depends on the microorganism and the technological conditions employed to develop the product Overall the general steps of probiotic ice-cream processing are: receptionweighing of the ingredients involved (milk emulsifiers stabilizers milk powder and sugar); mixing; pasteurizing; cooling to a temperature of around 3740 C for the addition of the freeze-dried starter cultures (usually yoghurt cultures) and the probiotic cultures (adjunct cultures); subsequent fermentation to a pH of 48 to 47 or the addition of a previously fermented inoculums containing both types of lactic cultures; cooling to 4 C and keeping the mixture at this temperature (4 C) for 24 h for the maturation (Cruz and others 2009a) Probiotic cultures may be added to ice creams in 2 ways considering they are of the DVS (Direct Vat Set) type for the direct addition to the product during their manufacture: either adding them directly to the pasteurized mix or using milk as a substrate for fermentation producing in the latter case frozen yoghurt ice cream In the 2nd case the pH must be closely controlled during the fermentative process from the moment of obtaining the inoculum and also the temperature during storage so that any undesirable reactions do not occur during this period In addition to the high sensibility of probiotic microorganisms to low pH values (40 to 45) negative effects on sensory acceptance of the product may occur since ice creams are not traditionally characterized as an acidic food product (Cruz and others 2009a) Hence it is important to continue monitoring of milk used as a base for fermentation and addition in ice creams Effects of inulin and sugar levels on sensory properties of probiotic ice cream added withL acidophilusandB lactiswere studied by Akin and others (2007) The samples were assessed by 10 panelists using a hedonic scale of 1 to10 for flavor and taste 1 to 5 for consistency and 1 to 5 for color and appearance Results showed that an increase in sugar concentration improved sensory properties but the addition of inulin had no effect on it Overall probiotic ice cream save a good total impression and did not have any marked off-flavor during the storage period Moreover a yogurt or probiotic flavor was not found to be particularly noticeable and none of the ice creams were judged to be crumbly weak fluffy or sandy Hekmat and McMahon (1992) studied the survival ofL acidophilusandB bifidumin ice cream and evaluated its sensory properties Probiotic and control samples were evaluated by 88 untrained assessors asked to indicate their most and least preferred samples and to evaluate flavor texture and overall acceptance of the product using a hedonic scale of 1 to 9 Results showed that the overall acceptance changed as a function of pH The study concluded that ice cream could be used as a good source for delivering probiotic bacteria to consumers Aragon-Alegro and others (2007) developed a synbiotic chocolate mousse withL paracaseisubspparacaseiand inulin Sensory evaluation of the mousses was carried out after 7 d of storage by 42 consumers who were asked to evaluate the 3-digit coded samples of the control and probiotic and synbiotic mousses using a score from 1 (preferred sample) to 3 (least preferred sample) based on overall impression Results did not indicate any significant differences in preference between samples of mousses even though the probiotic was considered the most preferred trial of chocolate mousse studied followed by the synbiotic and control Therefore the addition of the probiotic microorganism and prebiotic ingredient did not interfere and even improved the sensory preference of the product Sensory acceptance of probiotic coconut flan withB lactis and L paracaseiwas studied by Saad and others (2008b) Acceptability of all treatments was compared after 7 14 and 21 d of storage employing a 9-point structured hedonic scale where 1 represented dislike intensely and 9like greatly by 24 untrained consumers All products had a very acceptable performance for the sensory panel and no significant differences (P 006) were observed between the 3 probiotic samples and the conrol during the shelf-life period of 21 d However a tendency toward better scores was observed for probiotic coconut flans compared with the control product showing its great potential as a functional food with high sensory acceptability In studies by Favaro-Trindade and others (2006) ice cream samples containing acerola pulp were formulated with the use of different starter cultures (B longum B lactis andS thermophilus andL delbrueckiisppbulgaricus a culture traditionally used in yogurt fermentation) The authors analyzed the viability of the probiotic cultures the ascorbic acid stability and the sensory acceptance Fermentation by the culture combinations was interrupted when pH values of 50 to 55 were reached and the addition of acerola pulp caused a decrease in the pH value to 45 and 50 respectively The results of this study showed the viability of the cultures which remained above the recommended minimal limit of 106 CFUg for 15 wk at the pH value of 45 However the acceptance of the probiotic product was low Sensory properties of probiotic cheeses Another medium for probiotic inoculation is cheese Its versatility offers opportunities for many marketing strategies as a probiotic food carrier However the development of probiotic cheeses implies obligatory knowledge of all their processing steps as well as on their level of influence (positive or negative) on the survival of these microorganisms sensory acceptance chemical stability and microbiological conditions throughout their shelf life Cruz and others (2009b) emphasize that the manufacture of probiotic cheese should have minimum changes when compared to traditional products which makes the production of functional cheeses favorable The growth capacity of probioticL paracaseiA13B bifidumA1 andL acidophilusA3 in a probiotic fresco cheese commercialized in Argentina was studied by Vinderola and others (2009) during its manufacture and refrigerated storage at 5 C and 12 C for 60 dLactobacillus paracaseiA13 grew a half log order at 43 C during the manufacturing process of probiotic cheese and another half log order during the 1st 15 d of storage at 5 C without negative effects on sensory acceptance of the product However a negative impact on sensory acceptability was observed when cheeses were stored at 12 C for 60 d The effects ofL acidophilusaddition on the sensory attributes ripening time and composition of Turkish white cheese was investigated by Kasmoglu and others (2004) Two types of white cheeses traditional cheese (control made withL lactisspplactisandL lactissppcremoris) and probiotic cheese (made withL lactisspplactisL lactissppcremoris andL acidophilus593 N) were produced and ripened in vacuum packs or in brine at 4 C for 90 d Cheese samples were assessed for microbiological and compositional properties proteolysis and sensory evaluation at different ripening stages On ripening in a vacuum packL acidophilussurvived to numbers 107 CFUg which is necessary for positive health effects Protein dry matter salt content and percentage of lactic acid in the vacuum-packed and brine-salted probiotic cheeses were significantly different Also the lactic acid content of probiotic cheeses was slightly higher than that of the controls for both vacuum-packed and brine-packed cheeses Vacuum-packed probiotic cheese had the highest levels of proteolysis and the highest sensory acceptability of all cheeses ConsequentlyL acidophiluscould be used for the manufacturing of probiotic white cheese to shorten ripening time and vacuum-packaging is the preferred storage format The influence of inulin oligofructose and oligosaccharides from honey combined in different proportions on consumers sensory acceptance (using a 9-point hedonic scale) probiotic viable count and fructan content of novel potentially synbiotic petit-Suisse cheeses was investigated by Cardarelli and others (2008) Probiotic populations varied from 720 up to 769 log CFUg (B animalissubsplactis) and from 608 up to 699 log CFUg (L acidophilus) The control assay showed the lowest mean acceptance (663) after 28 d of refrigerated storage whereas the highest acceptance (743) was observed for the assay containing 10 g100 g oligofructose Acceptance increased significantly during storage (P 005) only for cheeses supplemented with oligofructose andor inulin Cheeses containing honey did not perform well enough compared to the cheeses with addition of inulin andor oligofructose and the best synbiotic petit-Suisse cheese considering sensory and technological functional features was that containing oligofructose and inulin combined Blanchette and others (1996) produced a probiotic cottage cheese by adding cream dressing fermented byB infantisto the dry curd Sensory analysis was performed with 2 probiotic cottage cheeses (pH 45 and pH 55) and 1 control samples by 121 untrained panelists Consumers evaluated the acceptability using a 5-point hedonic scale Results showed that consumers preferred (P 005) the control and pH 55 probiotic samples to the pH 45 probiotic sample suggesting that less-acidified products have higher acceptance The study concluded that in spite of not surviving well after 10 dB infantiscan be incorporated into fresh cheese to produce -galactosidase and inhibit growth of Gram-negative bacteria Burns and others (2008) evaluated the potential of milk treated by high-pressure homogenization for the production of Crescenza cheese withL paracaseiandL acidophilusadded Four types of cheeses were made from the following: HPH (from high-pressure homogenized treated milk) P (from pasteurized milk) HPH-P (HPH-treated milk plus probiotics) and P-P (pasteurized milk plus probiotics) To evaluate and compare the sensory attributes of the different cheeses obtained a panel evaluation of 25 assessors was performed after 8 d of refrigerated storage (4 C) Results showed that milk treated by high-pressure homogenization instead of pasteurized milk increased the maintenance ofL acidophiluscell viability during storage and together with the adjunct probiotic cultures modified the sensory features of the products Kili and others (2009) used scorecards (cheese scorecards) to grade Turkish Beyaz probiotic cheese supplemented withL fermentum(AB5-18 and AK4-120) andL plantarum(AB16-65 and AC18-82) toward the sensory quality of the product Three batches of cheese were produced: the test probiotic culture mix (P) another one with commercial starter culture mix includingL lactissppcremorisandL lactisspplactis(C) and the 3rd with equal parts of the commercial starter culture mix and test probiotic culture mix (CP) Sensory analysis was done by 16 panelists and cheese samples were graded on cheese scorecards according to the relevant Turkish National Standard Panelists rated 35 points for flavor attributes 35 points for body and texture 20 points for appearance and 10 points for odor The sensory quality of P cheese was comparable to that of C cheese and it was found that the combination of the test probiotic culture and the commercial starter culture used had a positive effect on the sensory characteristics of Turkish Beyaz cheese Other dairy probiotic products The dairy industry in particular regards probiotic cultures as tools for the development of new functional products (Champagne and others 2005) Yogurts and fermented milks are still the main vehicles for incorporation of probiotic cultures However new products are being introduced in the international market such as milk-based desserts powdered milk for newborn infants ice cream butter mayonnaise various types of cheese products in the form of capsules or powders to be dissolved in cold drinks and fermented foods of vegetable origin (Champagne and others 2005; Saad and others 2008a 2008b) Some milk-based probiotic products that have been developed recently by a number of researchers worldwide and that had consumer sensory acceptance are listed in Table 2 Although there are a large number of developed products it is important to emphasize that most of them are not commercially available once they have been tested for research purposes and have only been of small or laboratory scale However with the right approach they could easily be incorporated into industry production lines thus widening and diversifying probiotics prebiotics and synbiotics lines of products However to launch a probiotic product in the marketplace other aspects such as brand name loyalty advertising price quality control competitors and economic factors also play a role Conclusions and Perspectives Development of probiotic food is an expensive and multistage process that takes into account many factors such as sensory acceptance physical and microbial stability price and chemical and other intrinsic functional properties to be successful in the marketplace Moreover consumer expectation toward the product also needs to be understood and taken into consideration The future viability and success of functional foods in the marketplace especially for the probiotic products thus depend on several elements; however consumer acceptance (food safety sensory appeal brand marketing and others) is a key issue For consumers to agree to pay the cost associated with functional foods they need be convinced about any health claims through clear truthful and unambiguous messages Nonetheless to achieve this acceptance the development process requires a high input from commercial academic and regulatory bodies This is a hard and demanding step but at the same time it is extremely important and necessary to launch a functional food on the market Regarding the dairy probiotic products it has been observed that such foods have been widely explored by industry and by scientific researchers due to their health appeal and continuosly increasing demand by consumers Probiotic functional foods being one of the largest markets of functional foods represent a huge growth potential for the food industry and may be explored through the development of innovative ingredients processes and products However it is a challenge to develop probiotic and other functional foods that can both indulge consumers eating desire while also providing potential health benefits Product appraisal to identify specific sensory attributes driving product acceptability is vital to the introduction of new products although acceptance alone will not guarantee product success in the marketplace References ADAAmerican Dietetic Association 2009 Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods J Am Diet Assoc 109 : 735 46 Akalin AS Erisir D 2008 Effects of inulin and oligofructose on the rheological characteristics and probiotic culture survival in low-fat probiotic ice cream J Food Sci 73 : 184 8 Ahn JB Hwang HJ Park JH 2001 Physiological responses of oxygen-tolerant anaerobicBifidobacterium longumunder oxygen J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 11 : 443 51 Akin MB Akin MS Kirmaci Z 2007 Effects of inulin and sugar levels on the viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria and the physical and sensory characteristics in probiotic ice cream Food Chem 104 : 93 9 Almeida KE Bonassi IA Gomes MIFV 2000 Caracterstica microbiolgica de bebida lctea preparada com microrganismos probiticos In : Proceedings of XVII Congresso Brasileiro de Cincia e Tecnologia de Alimentos Fortaleza Brazil Almeida MHB Cruz AG Faria JAF Moura MRL Carvalho LMJ Freitas MCJ 2009 Effect of the aai pulp on the sensory attributes of probiotic yogurts Int J Prob Preb 4 : 41 4 Almeida MHB Zoellner SS Cruz AG Moura MRL Carvalho LMJ Santana AS 2008 Potentially probiotic aa yogurt Int J Dairy Technol 61 : 178 82 Amiri ZR Khandelwal P Aruna BR Sahebjamnia N 2008 Optimization of process parameters for preparation of synbiotic acidophilus milk via selected probiotics and prebiotics using artificial neural network J Biotechnol 136 : 460 Andlauer W Frst P 2002 Nutraceuticals: a piece of history present status and outlook Food Res Int 35 : 171 6 Andrighetto C Gomes MIFV 2003 Produo de picols utilizando leite acidfilo Braz J Food Technol 6 : 267 71 Antunes AEC Cazetto TF Bolini HMA 2005 Viability of probiotic micro-organisms during storage postacidification and sensory analysis of fat-free yogurts with added whey protein concentrate Int J Dairy Technol 58 ( 3 ): 169 73 Antunes AEC Cazetto TF Bolini HMA 2004 Iogurtes desnatados probiticos adicionados de concentrado proteico de soro de leite: perfil de textura sinrese e anlise sensorial Alim Nutr 15 : 105 14 Antunes AEC Silva ERA Van Dender AGF Mascara ETG Moreno I Faria EV Padula M Lerayer ALS 2009 Probiotic buttermilk-like fermented milk product development scale in a semindustrial scale: physicochemical microbiological and sensory acceptability Int J Dairy Technol 62 : 556 61 Aragon-Alegro LC Alegro JHA Cardarelli HRC Chiu MC Saad SMI 2007 Potentially probiotic and synbiotic chocolate mousse LWTFood Sci Technol 40 ( 4 ): 669 75 Arai O Sakaki M Sugimoto T 1996 Effectiveness of yogurt incorporated with enteric bifidobacteria Food Ind 39 : 53 6 Arihara K Nakashima Y Ishikawa S Itoh M 2004 Antihypertensive activities generated from porcine skeletal muscle proteins by lactic acid bacteria abstract In : Abstracts of 50th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology; 2004 Aug 813; Helsinki Finland; Elsevier Ltd 236 p Arunachalam KD 1999 Role of bifidobacteria in nutrition medicine and technology Nutr Res 19 : 1559 97 Aryana KJ Mcgrew P 2007 Quality attributes of yogurt with Lactobacillus casei and various prebiotics LWTFood Sci Technol 40 : 1808 14 Bagchi D Preuss HG Kehrer JA 2004 Nutraceutical and functional food industries: aspects on safety and regulatory requirements Toxicol Lett 150 : 1 2 Behrens JH Roig SM Da Silva MAAP 2001 Aspectos de funcionalidade de rotulagem e de aceitao de extrato hidrossolvel de soja fermentado e cultura lcteas probiticas Cien Tec Alim 34 : 99 106 Benkouider C 2005 The world's emerging markets Funct Foods Nutraceutical 1 ( Aug ): 8 12 Blanchette L Roy D Belanger G Gauthier SF 1996 Production of cottage cheese using dressing fermented by bifidobacteria J Dairy Sci 79 : 8 15 Blandon J Cranfield J Henson S 2007 International Food Economy Research Group: department of food agricultural and resource economics Available at : http://www4agrgcca/resources/prod/doc/misb/fbba/nutra/pdf/u_of_guelph_functional_foods_review_final_25jan2008_enpdf Accessed Mar 30 2010 Bolduc MP Raymond Y Fustier P Champagne CP Vuillemard JC 2006 Sensitivity of bifidobacteria to oxygen and redox potential in nonfermented pasteurized milk Int Dairy J 16 : 1038 48 Burns P Patrignani F Serrazanetti D Vinderola GC Reinheimer JA Lanciotti R Guerzoni ME 2008 Probiotic Crescenza cheese containingLactobacillus caseiandLactobacillus acidophilusmanufactured with high-pressure homogenized milk J Dairy Scie 91 : 500 512 Cardarelli HR Buriti FCA Castro IA Saad SMI 2008 Inulin and oligofructose improve sensory quality and increase the probiotic viable count in potentially synbiotic petit-suisse cheese LWTFood Sci Technol 41 : 1037 46 aglar E Kuscu OO Kuwetli SS Cildir SK Sandalli N Twetman S 2008 Short-term effect of ice-cream containingBifidobacterium lactisBb-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli Acta Odontol Scand 66 : 154 8 Castro FP Cunha TM Ogliari PJ Tefilo RF Ferreira MMC Prudncio ES 2009 Influence of different content of cheese whey and oligofructose on the properties of fermented lactic beverages: study using response surface methodology LWTFood Sci Technol 42 : 993 7 Champagne CP Roy D Gardner NJ 2005 Challenges in the addition of probiotic cultures to foods Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45 : 61 84 Chen Z Sun Z Meng H Zhang H 2009 The acid tolerance association with expression of H-ATPase inLactobacillus casei Int J Dairy Technol 62 : 272 6 Collado MC Meriluoto J Salminen S 2007 Development of new probiotics by strain combinations: is it possible to improve the adhesion to intestinal mucus J Dairy Sci 90 : 2170 6 Corbo MR Albenzio M De Angelis M Sevi A Gobbetti M 2001 Microbiological and biochemical properties of Canestrato Pugliese hard cheese supplemented with bifidobacteria J Dairy Sci 84 : 551 61 Corcoran BM Stanton C Fitzgerald G Ross RP 2007 Life under stress: the probiotic stress response and how it may be manipulated Curr Pharm Des 14 : 1382 99 Cruz AG 2010 Processamento de Iogurte Probitico com Glicose-Oxidase Tese de Doutorado em Tecnologia de Alimentos Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos Universidade Estadual de Campinas Cruz AG Antunes AEC Sousa ALOP Faria JAF Saad SMI 2009a Ice cream as a probiotic food carrier Food Res Int 42 : 1233 9 Cruz AG Buriti FCA Souza CHB Faria JAF Saad SMI 2009b Probiotic cheese: health benefits technological and stability aspects Trends Food Sci Technol 20 : 344 54 Cruz AG Faria AFJ Van Dender AGF 2007 Packaging system and probiotic dairy foods Food Res Int 40 : 951 6 Cruz AG Cadena RS Granato D Faria JAF Bolini HMA 2010 Sensory evaluation of probiotic prebiotic and synbiotic foods: relevance for product development Comp Rev Food Sci Saf Forthcoming Cunningham-Rundles S Ahrne S Bengmark S Johann-Liang R Marshall F Metakis L Califano C Dunn AM 2000 Probiotics and immune response Am J Gastroenterol 95 : S22 5 Dave RI Shah NP 1998 Ingredient supplementation effects on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt J Dairy Sci 81(11) : 2804 16 Dalev D Bielecka M Troszynska A Ziajka S Lamparski 2006 Sensory quality of new probiotic beverages based on cheese whey and soy preparation Pol J Food Nutr Sci 15 : 65 70 Davidson RH Duncan SE Hackney CR Eigel WN Boling JW 2000 Probiotic culture surival and implications in fermented frozen yogurt characteristics J Dairy Sci 83 : 666 73 Drago L Gismondo MR Lombardi A Haen C Gozzoni L 1997 Inhibition of enteropathogens by newLactobacillusisolates of human intestinal origin FEMS Microbiol Letters 153 : 455 63 Eaton TJ Gasson MJ 2001 Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates Appl Environ Microbiol 67 : 1628 35 Euromonitor 2000 Functional foods: a world survey London : Euromonitor International 6 p Eve L 2000 Regulatory issues: Europe and Japan In : Schmidt MK Labuza TP editors Essentials of functional foods Gaithersburg : Aspen Publication p 363 84 Favaro-Trindade CS Bernardi S Bodini RB Balieiro JCC Almeida E 2006 Sensory acceptability and stability of probiotic microorganisms and vitamin C in fermented acerola (Malpighia emarginataDC) ice cream J Food Sci 71 : 492 5 Fogliano V Vitaglione P 2005 Functional foods: planning and development Mol Nutr Food Res 49 : 256 62 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health OrganizationFAOWHO 2001 Evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria Crdoba Spain : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health Organization 34 p Food and Drug AdministrationFDA 2004 Probiotics Available from : http://wwwwebdietitiansorg/Public/GovernmentAffairs/92_adap1099cfm Accessed Apr 28 2007 Fooks LJ Fuller R Gibson GR 1999 Prebiotics probiotics and human gut microbiology Int Dairy J 9 : 53 61 Frewer L Scholderer J Lambert N 2003 Consumer acceptance of functional foods: issues for the future Br Food J 105 : 714 31 Fuller R 1989 Probiotics in man and animals J Appl Bacteriol 66 : 365 78 Gobbetti M Corsetti A Smacchi E Zocchetti A De Angelis M 1997 Production of Crescenza cheese by incorporation of bifidobacteria J Dairy Sci 81 : 37 47 Gomes AMP Malcata FX 1999 Bifidobacterium spp andLactobacillus acidophilus: biological biochemical technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics Trends Food Sci Technol 10 : 139 57 Granato D Castro IA Masson ML Ribeiro JCB 2010a Sensory evaluation and physicochemical optimization of soy-based desserts using response surface methodology Food Chem 121 : 899 906 Granato D Castro IA Ellendersen LSN Masson ML 2010b Physical stability assessment and sensory optimization of a dairy-free emulsion using response surface methodology J Food Sci 73 : 149 55 Granato D Branco GF Nazzaro F Cruz AG Faria JAF 2010c Functional foods and nondairy probiotic food-development: trends concepts and products Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 9 : 292 302 Hamilton-Miller J Shah S Winkler J 1999 Public health issues arising from microbiological and labelling quality of foods and supplements containing probiotic microrganisms Public Health Nutr 2 : 223 9 Hasler CM 1998 Functional foods: their role in disease in developing new food products for a changing prevention and health promotion Food Technol 52 : 57 62 Hatakka K Savilahti E Meurman JH Poussa T Nase L Saxelin M Korpeia R 2001 Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double bind randomized trial Br Med J 323 : 1327 9 Haynes IN Playne MJ 2002 Survival of probiotic cultures in low-fat ice cream Aust J Dairy Technol 57 : 10 14 Hekmat S McMahon DJ 1992 Survival ofLactobacillus acidophilusandBifidobacterium bifidumin ice cream for use as a probiotic food J Dairy Sci 75 ( 6 ): 1415 22 Hekmat S Reid G 2006 Sensory properties of probiotic yogurt is comparable to standard yogurt Nutr Res 26 : 163 6 Heller L 2006 Health is global purchasing priority finds AC Nielsen Available from : http://wwnutraingredients-usacom/news/ngasp?n1/469101-ac-nielsen-purchasing Accessed Dec 7 2006 Hernandez-Mendoza A Robles VJ Angulo JO Cruz J Garcia H 2007 Preparation of a whey-based probiotic product withLactobacillus reuteriandBifidobacterium bifidum Food Technol Biotechnol 45 ( 1 ): 27 31 Holzapfel WH Schillinger U 2002 Introduction to pre and probiotics Food Res Int 35 : 109 16 Homayouni A Azizi A Ehsani MR Yarmand MS Razavi SH 2008 Effect of microencapsulation and resistant starch on the probiotic survival and sensory properties of synbiotic ice cream Food Chem 111 : 50 55 Hussain I Rahman A Atkison N 2009 Quality comparison of probiotic and natural yogurt Pak J Nutr 8 : 9 12 Hutt PB 2000 US government regulation of food with claims for special physiological value In : Schmidt MK Labuza TP editors Essentials of functional foods Washington DC : Aspen Publishing p 339 52 IFTInstitute of Food Technologists 2007 Functional foods: opportunities and challenges In : Expert Report Chicago Ill : Institute of Food Technologists 66 p International Association of Consumer Food Organizations 1998 Japanthe inventor of functional foods Center for Science in the Public Interest report Available from : http://wwwcspinetorg/reports/functional_foods/japan_recmndhtml Accessed May 03 2002 Isanga J Zhang G 2009 Production and evaluation of some physicochemical parameters of peanut milk yogurt LWTFood Sci Technol 42 : 1132 38 Ishibashi N Yamazaki S 2001 Probiotics and safety Am J Clin Nutr 73 : 465 70 Itsaranuwat P Al-Haddad KSH Robinson RK 2003 The potential therapeutic benefits of consuming health-promoting fermented dairy products: a brief update Int J Dairy Technol 56 : 203 10 Jahreis G Volgelsang H Kiessling G Schubert R Bunte C Hammes WP 2002 Influence of probiotic sausage (Lactobacillus paracasei) on blood lipids and immunological parameters of healthy volunteers Food Res Int 35 : 133 8 Jasson SEA Edsman CJ Geede UW Hedenqvist MS 2001 Packaging Materials for Fermented Milk: effect of material Crystallinity and Polarity on Food Quality Pack Technol Sci 18 : 119 27 Jew S Jones PJ 2007 Functional food development: concept to reality Trends Food Sci Technol 18 : 387 90 Jones PJ 2002 Clinical nutrition: functional foodsmore than just nutrition Can Med Assoc J 166 : 1555 63 Joseph PJ Dave RI Shah NP 1998 Antagonism between yogurt bacteria and probiotic bacteria isolated from commercial starter cultures commercial yogurts and a probiotic capsule Food Aust 50 : 20 23 Jousse F 2008 Modeling to improve the efficiency of product and process development Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 7 : 175 81 Justfood 2006 Global market review of functional foodsforecasts to 2012 Worcs UK : Aroq Publication 94 p Kaila M Isolauri E Soppi E Virtanen E Laine S Arvilommi H 1992 Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a humanLactobacillusstrain Pediatr Res 32 : 141 4 Kailasapathy K Sultana K 2003 Survival and -D-galactosidase activity of encapsulated and freeLactobacillus acidophilusandBifidobacterium lactisin ice cream Aust J Dairy Technol 58 : 223 7 Kailasapathy K Harmstorf I Phillips M 2008 Survival ofLactobacillus acidophilusandBifidobacterium animalisspp lactis in stirred fruit yogurts LWTFood Sci Technol 41 : 1317 22 Kailasapathy K Masondole L 2005 Survival of free and microencapsulatedLactobacillus acidophilusandBifidobacterium lactisand their effect on texture of feta cheese Aust J Dairy Technol 60 : 252 8 Kailasapathy K 2006 Survival of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria and their effect on the sensory properties of yogurt LWTFood Sci Technol 39 ( 10 ): 1221 7 Kalavrouzioti I Hatzikamari M Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E Tzanetakis N 2005 Production of hard cheese from caprine milk by use of probiotic cultures as adjuncts Int J Dairy Technol 58 : 30 8 Kasmoglu A Gncoglu M Akgn S 2004 Probiotic white cheese withLactobacillus acidophilus Int Dairy J 14 : 1067 73 Kaur H Mishra HN Umar P 2009 Textural properties of mango soy fortified probiotic yogurt: optimisation of inoculum level of yogurt and probiotic culture Int J Food Sci Technol 44 : 415 24 Khorokhavar R Mortazavian AM 2010 Effects of probiotic-containing microcapsules on viscosity phase separation and sensory attributes of drink-based on fermented milk Milchwissenschaft 65 ( 2 ): 177 9 Kili GB Kuleansan H Eralp I Karahan AG 2009 Manufacture of Turkish Beyaz cheese added with probiotic strains LWTFood Sci Technol 42 ( 5 ): 1003 8 Knorr D 1998 Technology aspects related to microorganisms in functional foods Trends Food Sci Technol 9 : 295 306 Koletzko B Aggett PJ Bindels JG 1998 Growth development and differentiation: a functional food science approach Braz J Nutr 80 : 35 45 Kotilainen L Rajalahti R Ragasa C Pehu E 2006 Health enhancing foods: opportunities for strengthening the sector in developing countries Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 30 Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Kruger CL Mann SW 2003 Safety evaluation of funcional ingredients Food Chem Toxicol 41 : 793 805 Kwak N Jukes DJ 2001 Functional foods Part 1: the development of a regulatory concept Food Control 12 : 99 107 Lajolo FM 2002 Functional foods: Latin American perspectives Br J Nutr 88 : 145 50 Leatherhead Food International 2006 The international market for functional foods In : Functional Food Market Report London UK : Leatherhead Food International Publication Lilley DM Stillwell RH 1965 Probiotics: growth promoting factors produced by microorganims Science 147 : 747 8 Liong MT Fung WY Ewe JA Kuan CY Lye HS 2009 The improvement of hypertension by probiotics: effects on cholesterol diabetes renin and phytoestrogens Int J Mol Sci 10 : 3755 75 Lourens-Hattingh A Viljoen BC 2001 Yogurt as probiotic carrier food Int Dairy J 11 : 1 17 Lucas A Sodini I Monnet P Jolivet P Corrieu G 2004 Probiotic cell counts and acidification in fermented milks supplemented with milk protein hydrolysates Int Dairy J 14 : 2004 Majamaa H Isolauri MD 1997 Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy J Allergy Clin Immunol 99 : 179 85 Makinen-Aakula M 2006 Trends in functional foods dairy market In : Proceedings of the third functional food net meeting Available at : http://wwwfunctionalfoodneteu/images/site/assets/pdf/Marjopdf Accessed Mar 30 2010 Malin M Verronen P Korhonen H 1997 Dietary therapy withLactobacillusGG bovine colostrums or bovine immune colostrums in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: mallett evaluation of effect of gut defense mechanisms Inflammopharmacol 5 : 219 36 Maragkoudakisa PA Miarisa C Rojeza P Manalisb N Magkanarib F Kalantzopoulosa G Tsakalidou E 2006 Production of traditional Greek yogurt using Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential as starter adjuncts Int Dairy J 16 ( 1 ): 52 60 Marteau PR Vrese M Cellier CJ Schrezenmeir J 2001 Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics Am J Clin Nutr 73 : 430 6 Martn-Diana AB Janer C Pelez C Requena T 2003 Development of a fermented goat's milk containing probiotic bacteria Int Dairy J 13 : 827 33 Matsumoto M Ohishi H Benno Y 2004 HATPase activity inBifidobacteriumwith special reference to acid tolerance Int J Food Microbiol 93 : 109 13 Maus JE Ingham SC 2003 Employment of stressful conditions during culture production to enhance subsequent cold and acid tolerance of bifidobacteria J Appl Microbiol 95 : 146 54 Mazza G 2000 Alimentos funcionales: aspectos bioqumicos y de processado Zaragoza Spain : Editora Acribia 500 p Medici M Vinderola CG Weill R Perdigon G 2005 Effect of fermented milk containing probiotic bacteria in the prevention of an enteroinvasiveEscherichia coliinfection in mice J Dairy Res 72 : 243 9 Menrad K 2003 Market and marketing of functional food in Europe J Food Eng 56 : 181 8 Miller CW Nguyen M Rooney M Kailasapathy K 2002 The influence of packaging materials on the dissolved oxygen content of probiotic yogurt Pack Technol Sci 15 : 133 8 Miller CW Nguyen M Rooney M Kailasapathy K 2003 The control of dissolved oxygen content in probiotic yogurts by alternative packaging materials Pack Technol Sci 16 : 61 7 Mohan R Koebnick C Schildt J Mueller M Radke M Blaut M 2008 Effects ofBifidobacterium lactissupplementation on body weight fecal pH acetate lactate calprotectin and IgA in preterm infants Pediatr Res 64 : 418 22 Neves LS 2000 Produo de um derivado de leite de cabra no fermentado com bactrias probiticas Londrina Paran Brazil Universidade Estadual de Londrina 100 p Neves LS 2005 Fermentado probitico de suco de ma Dphil thesis Universidade Federal do Paran 96 p Noonan WP Noonan C 2004 Legal requeriments for functional foods claims Toxicol Lett 150 : 19 24 Ong L Shah NP 2009 Probiotic Cheddar cheese: influence of ripening temperatures on survival of probiotic microorganisms cheese composition and organic acid profiles LWTFood Sci Technol 42 : 1260 8 zer B Uzun YS Kirmaci HA 2008 Effect of microencapsulation on viability ofLactobacillus acidophilusLa-5 andBifidobacterium bifidumBb-12 during kasar cheese ripening Int J Dairy Technol 61 : 237 44 Parker RB 1974 Probiotics the other half of the antibiotic story Anim Nutr Health 29 : 4 8 Pascal G 1996 Functional foods in the European Union Nutr Rev 54 : 29 31 Patrignani F Burns P Serrazanetti D Vinderola G Reinheimer J Lanciotti R Guerzoni ME 2009 Suitability of high pressure-homogenized milk for the production of probiotic fermented milk containingLactobacillus paracaseiandLactobacillus acidophilus J Dairy Res 76 : 74 82 Penna ALB Gurram S Cnovas GVB 2007 High hydrostatic pressure processing on microstructure of probiotic low-fat yogurt Food Res Int 40 : 510 9 Perdign G de Macas ME Alvarez S Oliver G de Ruiz Holgado AA 1986 Effect of perorally administered lactobacilli on macrophage activation in mice Infect Immun 53 : 404 10 Perdign G de Macas ME Alvarez S Oliver G de Ruiz Holgado AP 1998 Systemic augmentation of the immune response in mice by feeding fermented milks withLactobacillus caseiandLactobacillus acidophilus Immunity 63 : 17 23 Pestka JJ Ha CL Warner RW Lee JH Ustunol Z 2001 Effects of ingestion of yogurts containingBifidobacteriumandLactobacillus acidophiluson spleen and Peyer's patch lymphocyte populations in the mouse J Food Prot 64 : 392 65 Pimentel BMV Francki M Gollcke BP 2005 Alimentos funcionais: introduo as principais substncias bioativas em alimentos So Paulo Brazil : Editora Varella 240 p Prado FC Parada JL Pandey A Soccol CR 2008 Trends in non-dairy probiotic beverages Food Res Int 41 : 111 23 Reid G 1999 The scientific basis for probiotic strains of Lactobacillus Appl Environ Microbiol 65 : 3763 6 Research and Markets 2008 Functional foods market assessment 2007 Available from : http://wwwresearchandmarketscom/reports Accessed Jun 27 2008 Roberfroid MB 2000 Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective Am J Clin Nutr 71 : 1660 64 Roberfroid MB 2002 Functional food concept and its application to prebiotics Dig Liver Dis 34 : S105 S110 Rodrguez MBS Megas SM Baena BM 2003 Alimentos Funcionales y Nutricin ptima Rev Esp Salud Pblica 77 : 317 31 Saad SMI Buriti FCA Komatsu TR 2007 Activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) and guava (Psidium guajava) pulps onLactobacillus acidophilusin refrigerated mousses Braz J Microbiol 38 : 315 7 Saad SMI Castro IA Harami JB 2008a Avaliao senaorial de uma nova sobremesa lctea congelada simbitica In : Proceedings of XXI Congresso Brasileiro de Cincia e Tecnologia de Alimentos Belo Horizonte Saad SMI Corra SBM Castro IA 2008b Probiotic potential and sensory properties of coconut flan supplemented withLactobacillus paracaseiandBifidobacterium lactis Int J Food Sci Technol 43 : 1560 68 Saarela M Mogensen G Fonden R Matto J Mattila-Sandholm T 2000 Probiotic bacteria: safety functional and technological properties J Biotechnol 84 : 197 215 Saccaro DM Tamine AY Pilleggi ALOPS Oliveira MN 2009 The viability of three probiotic organisms grown with yoghurt starter cultures during storage for 21 days at 4 C Int J Dairy Technol 62 : 397 404 Salminen S Ouwehand AC Isolauri E 1998a Clinical applications of probiotic bacteria Int Dairy J 8 : 563 72 Salminen S Bouley C Boutron-Ruault MC 1998b Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function Br J Nutr 80 ( suppl ): 147 71 Sanders ME 1998 Overview of functional foods: emphasis on probiotic bacteria Int Dairy J 8 : 341 7 Sanders ME 2003 Probiotics: considerations for human health Nutr Rev 61 : 91 9 Sanz Y 2007 Ecological and functional implications of the acid-adaptation ability of Bifidobacterium: a way of selection improved probiotic strains Int Dairy J 12 : 1284 9 Senok AC Ismaeel AY Botta GA 2005 Probiotics: facts and myths Clin Microbiol Infec 11 : 958 66 Senok AC 2009 Probiotics in the Arabian Gulf region Food Nutr Res 1 : 1 6 Shah NP 2001 Functional foods from probiotics and prebiotics Food Technol 55 ( 11 ): 46 53 Shah NP 2007 Functional cultures and health benefits Int Dairy J 17 : 1262 77 Silveira G Guergoletto KB Pelissari FM Pagamunici LM Zampieri DF Angelo EA Nicolau RM 2007 Avaliao sensory de iogurte de polpa de cupuau (Theobroma grandiflorumSchum) e graviola (Annona muricataL) com probiticos In : Proceedings of IX Encontro Regional Sul de Cincia e Tecnologia de Alimentos Curitiba Brazil : Anais do IX ERSCTA p 486 489 Sindhu SC Khetarpaul N 2003 Effect of feeding probiotic fermented indigenous food mixture on serum cholesterol levels in mice Nutr Res 23 : 1071 80 Sir I Kpolna E Kpolna B Lugasi A 2008 Functional food: product development marketing and consumer acceptanceA review Appetite 51 : 456 67 Sodini I Lucas A Tissier JP Corriey G 2005 Physical properties and microstructure of yoghurts supplemented with milk protein hydrolysates Int Dairy J 15 : 29 35 Solga SF 2003 Probiotics can treat hepatic encephalopathy Med Hypotheses 61 : 307 13 Sousa RCS Lira RA Oliveira FC Santos DO Sierra OAP 2007 Desenvolvimento e aceitao sensory de iogurte probitico light de banana In : Proceedings of IX Encontro Regional Sul de Cincia e Tecnologia de Alimentos Curitiba Brazil : Anais do IX ERSCTA p 549 553 Souza CHB Saad SMI 2009 Viability ofLactobacillus acidophilusLa-5 added solely or in co-culture with a yogurt starter culture and implications on physico-chemical and related properties of Minas fresh cheese during storage LWTFood Sci Technol 42 : 633 40 Speck ML 1978 The development of sweet acidophilus milk Dairy Ice Cream Field J 70 : A - D Sperty GS 1971 Probiotics West Point Conn : Avi Publishing 200 p Supavititpatana P Wirjantoro TI Apichartsrangkoon A Raviyan P 2008 Addition of gelatin enhanced gelation of cornmilk yogurt Food Chem 106 : 211 6 Takahashi N Xiao JZ Miyaji K Iwatsuki K 2007 HATPase in the acid tolerance ofBifidobacterium longum Milchwissenschaft 62 : 151 3 Talwalkar AI Kailasapathy K 2004 The role of oxygen in the viability of probiotic bacteria with reference toLacidophilusandBifidobacteriumspp Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 5 : 1 8 Talwalkar AI Kailasapathy K 2003 Effect of microencapsulation on oxygen toxicity in probiotic bacteria Aust J Dairy Technol 58 : 36 9 Tejada-Simon MV Lee JH Ustunol Z Pestka JJ 1999 Ingestion of yogurt containingLactobacillus acidophilusandBifidobacteriumto potentiate immunoglobulin A responses to cholera toxin in mice J Dairy Sci 82 : 649 60 Thage BV Broe ML Petersen MH Petersen MA Bennedsen MA Ard Y 2005 Aroma development in semi-hard reduced-fat cheese inoculated withLactobacillus paracaseistrains with different aminotransferase profiles Int Dairy J 15 : 795 805 Urbanska MA Bhathena J Martoni C Prakash S 2009 Estimation of the potential antitumor activity of microencapsulatedLactobacillus acidophilusyogurt formulation in the attenuation of tumorigenesis in Apc(Min) mice Eur Food Res Technol 54 : 264 73 Van de Guchte M Serror P Chervaux C Smokvina T Ehrlich SD Maguin E 2002 Stress responses in lactic acid bacteria Ant Leeuw 82 : 187 216 Viana JV Cruz AG Zoellner SS Silva R Batista ALD 2008 Probiotic foods: consumer perception and attitudes Int J Food Sc Technol 43 : 1577 80 Vinderola CG Gueimonde M Delgado T Reinheimer JA Reyes-Gaviln CG 2000a Characteristics of carbonated fermented milk and survival of probiotic bacteria Int Dairy J 10 ( 3 ): 213 20 Vinderola CG Mocchiutti P Reinheimer JA 2002 Interactions among lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria used for fermented dairy products J Dairy Sci 85 : 721 9 Vinderola CG Prosello W Ghiberto TD Reinheimer JA 2000b Viability of probiotic (BifidobacteriumLactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and non probiotic microflora in Argentinean fresco cheese J Dairy Sci 83 : 1905 11 Vinderola G Prosello W Molinari F Ghilberto D Reinheimer J 2009 Growth ofLactobacillus paracaseiA13 in Argentinian probiotic cheese and its impact on the characteristics of the product Intl J Food Microbiol 135 : 171 4 Waddington L Cyr T Hefford M Hansen LT Kalmokoff M 2010 Understanding the acid tolerance response of bifidobacteria J Appl Microbiol 108 : 1408 20 Wagar LE Champagne CP Buckley ND Raymond Y Green-Johnson JM 2009 Immunomodulatory properties of fermented soy and dairy milks prepared with lactic acid bacteria J Food Sci 74 : 423 30 Walzem RL 2004 Functional foods Trends Food Sci Technol 15 : 518 Winter J 2009 Probiotics: the potential of billions Available from : http://wwwfunctionalingredientsmagcom/fimag/articleDisplayasp?strArticleId=1921;strSite=FFNSite Accessed May 26 2009 Yaday H Jain S Sinha PR 2007 Production of free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in probiotic dahi containingLactobacillus acidophilusandLactobacilluscaseiduring fermentation and storage Int Dairy J 17 : 1006 10 Yamaguchi P 2005 Japan's nutraceuticals today and CoQ10 GMP and FOSHU update Available from : http://wwwnpicentercom/anm/templates/newsATempaspx?-articleid1/414032;zoneid1/445 Accessed Oct 28 2005 Yilmaztekin M zer BH Atasoy F 2004 Survival ofLactobacillus acidophilusLa-5 andBifidobacterium bifidumBB-02 in white-brined cheese Int J Food Sci Nutr 55 : 53 60 Wollowski I Rechkemmer G Pool-Zobel BL 2001 Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer Am J Clin Nutr 73 : 451 5 Zhao XH Li D 2008 A new approach to eliminate stress for two probiotics with chemicalsin vitro Eur Food Res Technol 277 : 1569 74 Zhao H Zhang L 2006 Growth of probiotic bacteria in milk supplemented with protein hydrolysate China Dairy Ind 44 : 16 8 Zoellner SS Cruz AG Faria JAF Bolini HMA Moura MRL Carvalho LMJ Sanana AS 2009 Whey beverage with aai pulp as a food carrier of probiotic bacteria Aust J Dairy Technol 64 : 165 9 Abstract:Foods that affect specific functions or systems in the human body providing health benefits beyond energy and nutrientsfunctional foodshave experienced rapid market growth in recent years This growth is fueled by technological innovations development of new products and the increasing number of health-conscious consumers interested in products that improve life quality Since the global market of functional foods is increasing annually food product development is a key research priority and a challenge for both the industry and science sectors Probiotics show considerable promise for the expansion of the dairy industry especially in such specific sectors as yogurts cheeses beverages ice creams and other desserts This article presents an overview of functional foods and strategies for their development with particular attention to probiotic dairy products Moreover special attention is paid to the sensory properties of such products to provide important information about their most desirable attributes
Article Date September 2010
Issue 5
Volume 9
Key Issues