Publications on Sodium Reduction

Research papers and articles published in IFT journals in the past five years are listed, by publication type.  Key resources of government and non-government organizations are also included.

Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Kuo WY, Lee Y. 2014. Effect of food matrix on saltiness perception—implications for sodium reduction.  Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 13(5):906-923. Provides an overview of the effects of the food matrix on perception of saltiness of sodium chloride.

Ohlhorst SD, Slavin M, Bhide JM, Bugusu B. 2012. Use of iodized salt in processed foods in select countries around the world and the role of food processors. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 11(2):233-284. Describes the IFT project, issued by the Micronutrient Initiative, to assess the extent to which iodized salt is used in processed foods, as well as food processors’ level of knowledge of iodine nutrition.

Doyle ME, Glass KA. 2010. Sodium reduction and its effect on food safety, food quality, and human health. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety9(1):44-56.  Considers published data on the apparent adverse health effects of excess salt intake as well as the important functions of salt in different foods, and possible strategies for reducing sodium levels in processed foods while still producing safe foods acceptable to consumers.

Johnson ME, Kapoor R, McMahon DJ, McCoy DR, Narasimmon RG. 2009. Reduction of sodium and fat levels in natural and processed cheeses: Scientific and Technological Aspects. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety8(3):252-268.  Reports on research to develop desirable low-fat and/or low-sodium cheese, their regulatory and labeling status, and consumer acceptability.

Journal of Food Science
Christina J, Lee Y. 2016. Modification of sodium release using porous corn starch and lipoproteic matrix. J Food Sci81(4):E897-E905. Shows that the lipoproteic matrix may be a potential sodium carrier as it could effectively encapsulate salt and modify the sodium-release profile. 

Gandhi A, Shah NP. 2016. Salt reduction in a model high-salt Akawi cheese: Effects on bacterial activity, pH, moisture, potential bioactive peptides, amino acids, and growth of human colon cells. J Food Sci 81(4):H991-H1000. Reported that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides.

Huynh HL, Danhi R, Yan SW. 2016. Using fish sauce as a substitute for sodium chloride in culinary sauces and effects on sensory properties. J Food Sci81(1):S150-S155. Shows that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for salt as a means to reduce sodium content in food without diminishing palatability.

Dos Santos BA, Campagnol PC, da Cruz AG, Morgano MA, Wagner R, Pollonio MA. 2015. Is there a potential consumer market for low-sodium fermented sausages? JFood Sci 80(5):S1093-S1099. Reported that sensory acceptance decreased in dry fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. However, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping showed potential for commercialization of samples with 50% of the NaCl content substituted with KCl or with a mixture of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1).

Lee CL, Lee SM, Kim K. 2015. Use of Consumer acceptability as a tool to determine the level of sodium reduction: A case study on beef soup substituted with potassium chloride and soy-sauce odor. J Food Sci 80(11):S2570-2577. Suggests that consumer acceptability should be considered when approaching sodium reduction to better understand the potential of sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor.

Pereira HC, de Souza VR, Azevedo NC, Rodrigues DM, Nunes CA, Pinheiro AM. 2015. Optimization of low sodium salts mix for shoestring potatoes. J Food Sci 80(6):S1399-S1403. Shows that use of a mix of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate is a relevant alternative to reduce the sodium content of foods, while maintaining sensory quality.

Kuo WY, Lee Y. 2014. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties—implications for sodium reduction. J Food Sci 79(11):E2245-E2252. Shows the dependence of temporal sodium-release properties on the microstructural properties of a solid lipoproteic colloid food system.

Miller AM, Mills K, Wong T, Drescher G, Lee SM, Sirimuangmoon C, Schaefer S, Langstaff S, Minor B, Guinard JX. 2014. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms. J Food Sci79(9):S1795-S1804. Shows that healthier alternatives to traditional meat-based dishes can be achieved through sodium reduction and substitution of mushrooms for meat without loss of overall flavor intensity.

Wang C, Lee Y, Lee S. 2014. Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt. JFood Sci79(10):S2098-S2106. Shows that herbs may aid in decreasing the amount of salt consumers need to add for freshly prepared soups, but that high levels of herbs may decrease consumers’ overall liking of soups.

Bautista-Gallego J, Rantsiou K, Garrido-Fernández A, Cocolin L, Arroyo-Lόpez FN. 2013. Salt reduction in vegetable fermentation: Reality or desire? J Food Sci 78(8):R1095-R1100. Discusses the technological, microbiological, sensorial, and health aspects of potential low-salt and salt-substituted vegetable products, and how this important segment of the industry is responding to consumer demand.

Harper N, Getty K. 2012. Effect of salt reduction on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in meat and poultry systems. J Food Sci 77(12):M669-M674. Shows that reducing sodium in pre-blends and emulsified meat and poultry products would have no effect on Listeria monocytogenes populations, but that replacement of NaCl with MgCl2 may affect growth of aerobic microbial populations.

Kim MK, Lopetcharat K, Gerad PD, Drake MA. 2012. Consumer awareness of salt and sodium reduction and sodium labeling. J Food Sci77(9):S307–S313. Reported on consumer knowledge of sodium and salt reduction, and perception of the relationship between high-sodium diets and many chronic diseases.

Food Technology(members only)
Nachay K. 2016. Breaking boundaries with savory ingredients. Food Tech 70(1):53-61. Addresses various approaches, such as umami flavor compounds, sea salt, and yeast extracts, to reduce sodium in food and beverage products.

Despain D.2014. Easy steps to less salt. Food Tech68(1):48-59. Addresses various approaches, such as stealth sodium reduction, and salts with varying particle sizes and textures or specific use, to reduce sodium in food and beverage products.

Mohamedshah F, Ruff J. 2014. IFT addresses sodium, sugars, and fat for DGAC.  Food Tech68(5):32. Summarizes IFT’s comments to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the role of sodium, sugars, and fats in food, and approaches to reduce these components in food and beverage products. 

Mermelstein N. 2014. Viewing salt with a grain of salt. Food Tech 68(9):72-75. Addresses various approaches, such as different size and types of salt crystals for use in specific foods, to reduce sodium in food and beverage products.

Nachay K. 2013. Moving forward on sodium reduction. Food Tech 67(5): 34-45. Addresses approaches to reduce sodium in food and beverage products and consumers’ views on dietary sodium.

Morley W. 2012. Novel strategies for reducing sodium.  Food Tech 66(1):53-62. Discusses various approaches, such as salt replacers and salt enhancers, to reduce sodium in food and beverage products.

Fleischhacker S, Fisher W. 2012. IFT comments on sodium reduction. Food Tech 66(2):23. Summarizes IFT views on approaches to reducing sodium consumption submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service.

IFT Scientific Status Summary
Dietary Salt. 1980.

Reports and Publications by Other Organizations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. Legal regulation of sodium consumption to reduce chronic conditions. Discusses legal interventions to help reduce sodium intake.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Trends in the prevalence of excess dietary sodium intake - United States, 2003—2010. MMWR 62(50):1021-1025. Provides population estimates meeting or exceeding dietary recommendations for sodium. 

Institute of Medicine. 2013. Sodium intake in populations: Assessment of evidence. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Reports that recent studies which examine links between sodium consumption and health outcomes support recommendations to lower sodium intake from very high levels, but that these studies do not provide evidence to support reduction in sodium intake to below 2,300 mg per/day.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. 2013. Lifestyle interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk: Systematic evidence review from the lifestyle work group. Bethesda, MD. Presents the results of evaluation of evidence on the effects of particular dietary patterns, nutrient intake (e.g., macronutrients, sodium, and potassium), and levels and types of physical activity on modifiable risk factors such as high blood pressure, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

World Health Organization. 2013. Global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013—2020. WHO set a voluntary global target of 30% reduction, relative to the mean population intake of salt/sodium.

World Health Organization. 2013. Mapping salt reduction initiatives in the WHO European Region. Presents a view of salt reduction initiatives in WHO European Member States, and highlights activities related to the action points of the relevant global frameworks.

Institute of Medicine. 2010. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Recommends strategies for reducing sodium content in food and beverage products to reduce sodium intake.

Institute of Medicine. 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington DC: National Academies Press. Establishes nutrient recommendations on water, salt and potassium to maintain health and reduce chronic disease risk.

Pan American Health Organization. Preventing cardiovascular disease in the Americas by reducing dietary salt intake population-wide. Presents the goal to work toward a gradual, sustained drop in dietary salt intake to reach national targets or in their absence the internationally recommended target of less than 5g/day/person by 2020.