Relevant Sodium Reduction Publications
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies
- Institute of Medicine Report on Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States 2010. This report was supported by various agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services; specifically the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, and Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The Committee recommended the use of regulatory tools to gradually reduce sodium in foods "through a well-researched, coordinated, deliberative, and monitored process." Read more in the Report Brief or Download the Full Report.
- Institute of Medicine Report on Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium Chloride, and Sulfate 2005. In this report, data is put forth on the requirements for and the effects of sodium and chloride together. The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium was set for young adults at 1.5 g/d. Read more in the Executive Summary or Download the Full Report.
- Institute of Medicine Report on School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children 2009. Congress required the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) issue new guidance and regulations for Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). The USDA then requested the Institute of Medicine (IOM) provide recommendations to revise the nutrition- and food-related standards and requirements for NSLP and SBP. The IOM Committee on Nutrition Standards for National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs was asked to specifically review and assess the food and nutritional needs of school-aged children in the United States using the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the IOM's Dietary Reference Intakes and to use that review as a basis for recommended revisions to the NSLP and SBP Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements. The Committee recommended meal planning approaches that provide specifications on the maximum sodium content. In addition, the Committee recognized barriers to sodium reduction and suggested incentives be developed to encourage innovative ways to gradually reduce the sodium content in school foods. Read more in the Report Briefor Download the Full Report.
Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition
- A report was prepared in response to a request from the Food Standards Agency and the Chief Medical Officer of Wales. The report methodologically examines the national data on salt and health and provides recommendations for the government to take to facilitate sodium consumption in the United Kingdom. Salt and Health. 2003.
Journal of Food Science Research Articles
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Food Technology Magazine Articles
- Sheila Fleischhacker and Will Fisher provide highlights of IFT's comments to FDA/FSIS on Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption. IFT Comments on Sodium Reduction. Food Tech. 2012;Vol(Number)
Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. Effects of low-sodium diets vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglycerdie (Cochrane Review). Am J Hypertension. 2011. doi:10.1038/ajh.2011.210. Study of low sodium diets versus high sodium diets found sodium reduction resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure and a significant increase in plasma renin, plasma aldosterone, plasma adrenaline, and plasma noradrenaline.
- Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens G. The Cochrane Collaboration. Effects of low sodium diets versus high sodium diets on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride (Review). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011. In this 2011 update, 167 studies were included and the authors concluded sodium reduction resulted in a 1% decrease in blood pressure in normotensives, a 3.5% decrease in hypertensives, a significant increase in plasma renin, plasma aldosterone, plasma adrenaline, and plasma noradrenaline, a 2.5% increase in cholesterol, and a 7% increase in triglyceride.