Lesson 1 Glossary Important terms from Lesson 1 defined.

Escherichia coli (E. coli)
A rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the same family as Salmonella. E. coli is of the coliform group, which are organisms associated with the intestinal tract flora. Presence of coliforms is usually an indication of unsanitary handling or processing procedures.

Food-borne Illness
The sickness resulting from eating food contaminated with either bacterial toxins or by certain bacteria in the food, often resulting in vomiting, diarrhea and prostration. Food-borne diseases are most often caused by several species of bacteria, although viruses, parasites, amoebas and other biological as well as chemical agents may be responsible. Food poisoning would include illness caused by naturally poisonous foods, like certain wild mushrooms, or from chemical contaminants in the food.

Food Poisoning Outbreak
An occurrence of food poisoning that involves many individual cases of food-borne illness.

Homogenization
To process milk so that the fat globules are so finely divided and emulsified that the cream does not separate on standing.

Louis Pasteur
French chemist and bacteriologist who lived from 1822-95. He showed in 1857 that the souring of milk was due to the growth of organisms in it. Around 1860 he performed experiments using heat to destroy undesirable microorganisms in beer and wine. Heating (pasteurization) to remove undesirable organisms was introduced commercially in 1867.

Microorganism
Any microscopic animal or plant-like organism including bacteria, yeasts, viruses and single-celled algae.

Pasteurization
The controlled heating of a food to destroy all pathogenic microorganisms.

The particular requirements for pasteurization are designed to kill Coxiella burnetii, the most heat-resistant pathogenic organism commonly associated with cow's milk.

Pathogen
Any microorganism that can cause disease. Salmonella is always considered a pathogenic microorganism. E. coli is considered an opportunistic pathogen. It is not always pathogenic, but given the opportunity, it can cause food-borne illness.

Salmonella
A group of organisms named after a U.S. veterinarian, D.E. Salmon. There are over 2,000 species within the genus Salmonella that will infect man. These rod-shaped bacteria cause various diseases in man and animals, including typhoid fever and food poisoning. Salmonella food poisoning can result from eating undercooked chicken, raw eggs, or contaminated milk and dairy products.

Salmonellosis
Name given to a disease caused by various species or strains of salmonella. Characterized by fever, malaise and intestinal disorder. Salmonellosis can be deadly to the young, old or infirm.

Sanitation
The science and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions. The process of cleaning to inactivate viable pathogenic microorganisms. Having a sanitary work bench does not mean that it is a sterile one.

Specifications
A detailed description of the parts of the whole; statement or enumeration of particular requirements such as size, number, quality, performance, etc.

Sterilization
The process of eliminating all viable life forms; nothing is left living in a sterilized product. Commercial sterilization involves the destruction of all pathogenic microorganisms as well as more heat-resistant organisms that could grow inside the processed food package under normal conditions of distribution and room-temperature storage. The amount of heat a package must receive to achieve commercial sterility is much greater than in other heated foods (such as pasteurized milk) due to the high resistance of many spoilage bacteria and their spores.