CRFSFS Author Guidelines

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The Institute of Food TechnologistsTM (IFT) publishes peer-reviewed scientific journals to provide subscribers with high-quality scientific information in the area of food science and technology. The Journal of Food Science (JFS), available with subscription online and/or in print, provides results of original research and short interpretive reviews on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of food science and technology. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (CRFSFS), available online only, open access, provides in-depth interpretive reviews in these same areas, and in risk analysis. The Journal of Food Science Education (JFSE), available online only, open access, provides information relevant to those involved in food science education at all levels.

IFT is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.


CRFSFS publishes in-depth, extended reviews (over 10,000 words in the body text and references) covering the chemistry, physics, engineering, microbiology, physiology, nutritional or sensory properties, analysis, risk analysis (assessment, management, communication), genetic modification, cost, government regulation, history, or psychological aspects of foods, food ingredients, food packaging, food processing/storage or food safety. Occasionally, special government and institutional reports are published, as well as symposium proceedings and reviews of books deemed to be comprehensive.

Scientific Editor: Manfred Kroger
Editor-in-Chief: E. Allen Foegeding


Authorship Criteria and Author Responsibilities

Author criteria
Authorship is restricted to those who have contributed substantially to one or more of the following aspects of the work: conception, planning, execution, writing, interpretation, or statistical analysis. Each author’s primary contribution(s) should be listed in your manuscript.

All authors must be willing to assume public responsibility for the validity of the work.

Ghost, guest, honorary, or anonymous authorship is not allowed. Contributors who do not qualify for authorship should be mentioned in the acknowledgments.

For CRFSFS authorship is not restricted. Peer review is the best of all possible quality assurance systems. However, authors relatively new to a field, such as recent graduate students and individuals without prior publications on the subject under review, must have at least one co-author with recognized experience in that area. In addition to the stated requirements for authors, expectations from authors of comprehensive reviews are:

good writing

adherence to the journal’s style and format

manuscript presentation with double-spaced, line-numbered text

interpretation of the references cited so that meaning as well as the data of each are easily understood

analysis and summary of important concepts under discussion

identification of further research needed on the subject

listing references in the required format.

Exclusivity of work:
The corresponding author must verify, on behalf of all authors (if more than one), that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content has been published, accepted for publication, or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure the integrity of all submitted works. For further guidance, see the Wiley-Blackwell Publication Ethics Guide at

The editorial staff will check all manuscripts for plagiarism and improperly-cited content with similarity detection software. If sections are found that are (1) the same as in authors’ previous manuscripts (self-plagiarism) or (2) copied from other manuscripts, they will be considered ethical violations and the manuscript will be rejected and author sanctions considered.

Disclosure requirements:
Each author must disclose any meaningful affiliation or involvement, either direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, patents received or pending, royalties, honoraria, expert testimony). These kinds of financial involvement are fairly common, unavoidable, and generally do not constitute a basis for rejecting a manuscript. If deemed appropriate by the Scientific Editor, a general statement regarding disclosure will be included in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. The Acknowledgment section must also reveal all sources of support for the work, both financial and material.

Ethical issues:
Authors are expected to adhere to established ethical best practices, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) International Standards for Authors, online at

The corresponding author will be asked to digitally sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement on behalf of all authors upon acceptance of the manuscript, transferring copyright to IFT (except in cases where the work cannot be copyrighted, e.g., works authored solely by U.S. government employees as part of their employment duties). Copyright terms and authors’ rights are available at

Reproduction of all or any significant portion of an IFT publication is prohibited unless permission is received from IFT. Authors have the right to reproduce portions of their own papers with proper acknowledgment and retain the right to any patentable subject material that might be contained therein. Authors can obtain permission online through Rightslink, which is an automated online permissions service available 24 hours/day. You can do so by locating the article you want to reuse and clicking on the “Request Permissions” link under the “Article Tools” menu on the abstract page. Go to for more details.

Opinions expressed in articles published in an IFT journal are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent opinions of IFT. IFT does not guarantee the appropriateness, for any purpose, of any method, product, process, or device described or identified in an article. Trade names, when used, are only for identification and do not constitute endorsement by IFT.

Criteria for Manuscript Acceptance
Factors considered when judging the suitability of a manuscript for publication are: interest readers will have in the subject; relevance to human foods; originality, scientific quality (including appropriateness of the experimental design and methods, depth of investigation, proper statistical analysis of the data); importance and substance of the results; and the thoroughness and accuracy with which the results are interpreted. IFT membership is not a prerequisite for publication.

There is a 10,000 word minimum (text plus references) for papers in CRFSFS. Reviews under 10,000 words should be submitted to the JFS Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science section.

There are no page charges nor color figure charges for articles published in CRFSFS.

Letters to the Editor
Comments, observations, different perspectives, and suggestions for improving concepts and techniques previously published, or for the need for research in specific areas, are welcome and accepted. e-mail letters for consideration to Scientific Editor Manfred Kroger at

Performance Attributes
Data from Journal Citation Reports, 2013 Impact Factor  3.540; Ranking 6/123.


General Instructions

Language, units of measurement and symbols
l Use the English language (American spelling and usage) and the SI system (Système International d’Unités, often referred to as “International Units”) for measurements and units.

Style and format
Your manuscript should be consistent with the Council of Science Editors' Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2014, 8th ed. (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press). For convenience, refer to articles in current issues of CRFSFS for examples, or contact the editorial office ( with your questions.

Page format
Continuous line-numbering for the entire manuscript is mandatory.

Double-space entire manuscript.

Submitted manuscripts must list full names for all authors; that is, full first/given name(s), middle initial(s), and last/surname(s).

Failure to comply with these formatting instructions can result in automatic rejection of the manuscript.

Try to restrict individual file sizes to 5Mb maximum. Larger files may be hosted, but these can lead to download issues for users.

Constructing Your Manuscript

Title page
Enter full title (be concise) Do not use trade names in titles. Do not use abbreviations and acronyms in titles.

Enter name(s) of author(s) and author affiliation(s) with complete address(es).

Provide contact information for the corresponding author, including full name, complete mailing address, phone, fax, and e-mail address.

Enter the word count of the body text, including Abstract and references but not including tables and figures. For CRFSFS papers, word count should be greater than 10,000 words (body text and references). Use double-spacing.

Enter short version of title (less than 40 letters and spaces).

Provide previous address(es) of author(s) if research was conducted at a place different from current affiliation.

Enter “ABSTRACT:” followed by abstract text, preferably not exceeding 250 words; define all acronyms and abbreviations; do not cite references. State in one paragraph basic background, major results, and conclusions.

Upon submission in ScholarOne Manuscripts, you will be asked to provide 5 keywords for indexing purposes. It is highly recommended to choose keywords from our established list in ScholarOne Manuscripts, when possible, to aid in consistency.

Enter introductory text; review pertinent work; cite key references; explain the importance of the topic and the objectives of your work.

Body text
Topic must be covered in depth and information must be critically evaluated (strengths, weaknesses, discussion of discrepancies in results among similar studies) so that insightful, integrative interpretations and conclusions are achieved.

State conclusions (not a summary or continuing discussion) briefly in one paragraph and without references.

List sources of financial or material support and the names of individuals whose contributions were significant but not deserving of authorship. Any conflicts of interest should be entered here (see section III. A. 4.). Acknowledgment of an employer’s permission to publish is not needed and will not be published.

Author Contributions
List each author’s name and primary contribution(s) to this work. For example, “Yu researched prior studies and interpreted the results. Smith compiled data and drafted the manuscript.”

Alphabetically list only those references cited in the text.
Required format is described below.

Enter one table per page after the references. Be sure you have cited each table within the text.

Enter a short descriptive caption at the top of each table, preceded by an identifying Arabic numeral.

Columns and their headings are normally (but not always) used to display the dependent variable(s) being presented in the table.

Footnotes should be identified by lowercase letters or number (e.g., a, b, c; 1, 2, 3) appearing as superscripts in the body of the table and preceding the footnote below the table. The same data should not appear in both tables and figures.

All data reported in numerical form must take into account significant figures.

Tables including a large amount of data with few significant differences should instead be described in a sentence along with “(data not shown)”.

Figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and other illustrations)(Also see Graphics Guide)

General instructions
Enter one figure per page after the tables (if any). Be sure you have cited each figure within the text, using Arabic numerals.

Enter the figure number and descriptive caption at the bottom of each figure.

You are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted figures. Proof of permission to reproduce is required.

Submit your figures at least twice the size they will appear when published at 300 dots per inch (dpi) or greater.

Be sure to use lettering, data lines, and symbols sufficiently large and thick to be clearly legible when the figure is reduced to the normal published size.

All data reported in numerical form must take into account significant figures.

Avoid redundancy between the figure caption and information in the figure.

Special instructions for graphs
Keep as simple as possible.

Dependent variable should be presented on the vertical axis (y or ordinate).

Independent variable should be presented on the horizontal axis (x or abscissa).

The label for each axis should be parallel to, and centered on, the axis; that is, the label for the vertical axis should be rotated 90° counterclockwise from normal.

Axis labels should be followed by the units of measurement in parentheses, with abbreviations shown elsewhere in these Instructions.

Range of values presented on each axis should be no larger than the range of values being presented.

All data reported in numerical form must take into account significant figures.

If data lines are close together and/or intersect, do not present more than 4 lines per figure.

If data lines are well separated and few or none intersect, a maximum of about 8 lines per figure may be entered.

Identify lines directly, if feasible. If not, enter key box at a blank area inside the graph.

Avoid simultaneous use of a new symbol and a new line style.

Avoid, if possible, presenting more than 8 data bars per figure.

Avoid using shades of gray on bars or lines.

Appendix (if needed)
Examples are complicated calculations or detailed nomenclature.

Supplemental materials
Multimedia (audio, video, and animation) files demonstrating important information relevant to the article can be published as supplemental material. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains entirely with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect.

Quicktime, MPEG, or AVI video files are accepted. All video clips must be created with commonly-used codecs, and the codec used should be noted in the supplemental material legend. Test files for playback before submission, preferably on computers not used for their creation, to check for compatibility issues.


Manuscripts must follow the name-year reference format specified in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 2006, 7th ed. (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press). Cite only necessary publications and use primary rather than secondary references when possible. It is acceptable to cite work that is “forthcoming” (that is, accepted but not yet published) with the pertinent year and, if available, the DOI. Works that are “submitted” and under review are not to be cited.

In text
When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Use “and others” rather than “et al.” In citations that are totally parenthetical, do not separate author and year with a comma. Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest.


Smith (2003) showed that . . . :
. . . minimizes the variances (Chang 2012).
. . . work (Green and others 2011) has shown that . . .
. . . studies (Lucci and Mazzafera 2009, 2011) focused . . .
. . . work (Dawson 1999; Briggs 2004) demonstrated . . .
. . . reaction (Martín and others 2001a, b).

In Reference section
List only those references cited in the text. References are listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). Type references flush left as separate paragraphs. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, please refer to articles in a recent issue of the journal or contact the editorial office at

Journal article: Author(s). Year. Article title. Journal abbreviation Volume(Issue optional): inclusive pages.
Belcourt LA, Labuza TP. 2007. Effect of raffinose on sucrose recrystallization and texture changes in soft cookies. J Food Sci 72:C65–71.
Note: If the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) of an article available online is known, include it at the end of the reference.

Chapter in book: Author(s) of chapter. Year. Title of chapter. In: Name(s), editor(s). Title of book. Edition or volume, if relevant. Place of publication: Publisher name. Inclusive pages of chapter.

Wypych G. 2004. Plasticizer motion and diffusion. In: Wypych C, editor. Handbook of plasticizers. Toronto: ChemTec Publishing. p 151–70.

Conference Proceedings and Reports: Author(s) or editor(s). Year. Title. Name of conference or publication; place of conference; date(s) of conference. Place of publication: publisher.

WHO. 2000. The medical impact of antimicrobial use in food animals. Report of a WHO Meeting; Berlin, Germany, 13–17 October 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
l Patent: Name of inventor(s) of the patented device or process; “inventor(s),” assignee. Year or date issued. Title. Patent descriptor [issuing country and patent number]. Example:
Liedl FG, Rowe KF, inventors. 2007. Nut butter and related products and method of making same. U.S. Patent 7235277.

Web sites and other internet material: Organization or publisher. Year (if relevant). Title or webpage or database. Edition (if relevant). URL. Accessed year month date.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004. Review of the State of World Marine Fisheries Resources. General situation of world fish stocks. Available from: Accessed 2012 March 3.


Submitting Your Manuscript

Technical Requirements
 IFT’s journals only accept submissions via our ScholarOne Manuscripts site

Manuscripts must be submitted in an editable text format (filetype .doc, .docx, or .rtf). Your computer system must be equipped with: (1) current version of a common web browser, Java-enabled (2) current version of Adobe Acrobat Reader; (3) e-mail capability.

Getting Started


Create an account or log in. Your default login ID is your email address. (Use your existing account; do not create new accounts with new submissions.)
Note: This site was designed for JFS, but has been modified to accommodate the JFSE and CRFSFS.

Create a new submission, and select the manuscript type: 2 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.

Completing Submission
Follow the steps to complete each page in the submission form.

You must add all co-authors in the required space in the submission form. Provide valid e-mail addresses for all co-authors, and look them up in the system before creating any new accounts.

Figures (with captions) and tables (with captions) should be inserted at the end, after the references.

To assist in the review process, the SE, AE, or reviewer may request the author to submit the original data.

When prompted to do so, please provide the names, titles, and contact information (phone and fax number; postal and e-mail addresses) for up to 4 individuals you consider appropriate referees for your manuscript. Nonpreferred referees may also be named.

The final step to submit requires that you review your PDF submission. Please check that all of your files appear and are in the correct order.

Checking on the Status of Your Manuscript
During the review process, the submitting author may track the progress of his/her manuscript at any time by logging onto ScholarOne Manuscripts (

Peer Review
All submitted manuscripts are screened by the Scientific Editor for language, importance, interest to subscribers, substance, appropriateness for the journal, and general scientific quality. Those failing to meet current standards are rejected by the Scientific Editor without further review. Those manuscripts meeting these initial standards are sent to an Associate Editor who assigns referees. Author identities are disclosed to the referees, but referee identities are not disclosed to the author. When the initial review is complete, the Associate Editor will send you the referees’ suggestions along with his or her suggestions. You are expected to respond to all suggestions either by making appropriate revisions or stating why the suggestions are unreasonable. The Associate Editor will consider your revisions, and provide the Scientific Editor with a recommendation to accept, revise, or reject your manuscript. Occasionally a peer-reviewer insistes on a re-evaluation. If a second revision of a manuscript is still not satisfactory, it may be rejected. You will be informed by the Scientific Editor of the final decision.


After acceptance, the corresponding author will receive further information on copyright transfer and tracking production of your paper through Wiley’s Author Services.

We will use the accepted files on ScholarOne Manuscripts for production. If you need to make final edits suggested by the editor, please e-mail a final file as soon as possible to, or you may make those edits at the proofing stage.

Label all electronic files or hard-copy figures with the assigned 8-digit manuscript ID number and figure numbers.

A few weeks after production of your manuscript begins, you will receive a PDF proof via e-mail so you can make any final minor corrections. You are responsible for all statements appearing in the page proof. If you are not available to review the page proof, you should authorize someone else to carefully study the page proof for errors.


If you encounter difficulties in submitting your manuscript, or for any other queries, contact the editorial office at (phone: +1.312.604.0276, fax: +1.312.596.5676).

Your manuscript can only move through the submission, acceptance, and publishing phases if your user information is accurate and complete. If you move, change employment or change your e-mail address or fax number, let us know immediately. Please take time to look at your account (at and verify that your information is up to date.

Publication of your manuscript will halt if we cannot reach you. It is your responsibility to contact us with any changes in your contact information.

Policy Guidelines for Handling Manuscripts Dealing with Sensitive Issues
The following statement was adopted by IFT and the Scientific Editors to address the issue of potential inappropriate use of information published in IFT’s scientific journals. We realize this is a sensitive issue between access to information, academic freedom, and personal and community safety. We have tried to craft a statement and process that carefully walks the fine line between these potentially conflicting forces. Since this is a dynamic time, we would appreciate hearing from you if you have concerns.

Statement on Bioterrorism
IFT recognizes that there are valid concerns regarding the publication of information in scientific journals that could be put to inappropriate use. The Editorial Board in concert with the Editor-in-Chief will evaluate those manuscripts that might raise such issues during the review process. Research articles must contain sufficient detail to permit the work to be repeated by others. ALL Scientific Editors of ALL IFT journals should take the following course of action:
1. Ask all reviewers to advise the Scientific Editor and/or Associate Editor, by use of the Confidential Comments section of the review form, if, in their opinion, the manuscript under review describes or could lead to misuses of information on food science and technology.
2. The Scientific Editor will serve as an initial screen with regard to this matter and will likely be the point of contact with the author(s).
3. If a reviewer or Associate Editor brings such a matter to a Scientific Editor’s attention, the Scientific Editor will notify the Editor-in-Chief. No action will be taken for further progress toward publication of the manuscript until the situation is resolved.
4. The Editor-in-Chief may render a decision or, at his/her discretion, consult the entire Editorial Board or other experts of his/her choosing to determine whether to resume the review process or to decline the manuscript and return it to the author.

“The Executive Committee of the Institute of Food Technologists affirms the long-standing position of the Institute that food scientists and technologists will work for the proper and beneficent application of science and will call to the attention of the appropriate authorities misuses of information derived from food science and technology. IFT members are obligated to discourage any use of food science and technology contrary to the welfare of humankind. Bioterrorism violates the fundamental principles of the Institute and is abhorrent to the IFT and its members.”
-January 20, 2004