Useful Abbreviations and Nomenclature

The information below provides a guide to useful abbreviations and nomenclature on the journal style adopted from the Council of Science Editors' Scientific Style and Format Manual.

Abbreviations

Eq. Equation n Abbreviate "equation" only if you are using the word with an equation number. Do not abbreviate if "Equation" begins the sentence, even if you are using the word with an equation number. If citing more than one equation, do not make the abbreviation plural. Correct: ".... as seen in Eq. 1 and 5."
d day
dia diameter
Fig. Figure n Abbreviate "figure" only if you are using the word with a figure number. Do not abbreviate if "Figure" begins the sentence, even if you are usign the word with a figure number. If citing more than one figure, do not make the abbreviation plural. Correct: "... (Fig. 1 and 5)."
h hour
min minute
mo month
s second
wk week
Cailf. California n U.S. states are abbreviated using the version with periods (Ala., Conn., etc.) when no zip code is included. If used with a zip code, use the two-letter U.S. Postal abbreviation: CA.

Formatting

  • Space between number and degree sign . . . 250 °C
  • Space between +, –, etc. and number . . . . 35 ± 2 °C
  • Space between measurement and number . .25 mm
  • No space between % and number . . . . . . . 250%
  • 2 commas in a series of 3 items . . . . . . . . . lions, tigers, and bears
  • Numerals for all numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000 microbes on the head of 1 pin
    (except at the start of a sentence)
  • c, and . . . . convert to "approximately" or "about"
  • et al. . . . . . convert to "and others"
  • etc. . . . . . . convert to "and so forth" or "and so on"
  • e.g., . . . . . .convert to "for example,"
  • i.e., . . . . . . convert to "that is,"
  • vs. . . . . . . .convert to "against" or "in contrast to"
  • manufacturer locations . . . . . include city, state, country: Peoria, Ill., U.S.A.
  • in-text reference citations . . . (Author year). Use no commas between author and year. Use commas between the years of the same author. Use semi-colons between citations.
    Examples:
          (Katz 2000)
    (Katz and others 2000)
    (Katz 1999; Baird 1999, 2000)
    (Katz 1999a, 1999b)
  • some nonEnglish words are o.k. . . . . . . . . . . . in situ is not italicized

Reference Format

JOURNAL ARTICLES:
Author(s). Year. Article title. Journal title volume number (issue number):inclusive pages.
Example:
Smith JB, Jones LB, Rackly KR. 1999. Maillard browning in apples. J Food Sci 64(4):512-8.

BOOKS:
Author(s) or editor(s). Year. Title. Place of publication: publisher name. Number of pages.
Example:
Spally MR, Morgan SS. 1989. Methods of food analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier. 682 p.

CHAPTER IN BOOK:
Author(s) of the chapter. Year. Title of the chapter. In: author(s) or editor(s). Title of the book. Place of publication: publisher. pages of the chapter.
Example:
Rich RQ, Ellis MT. 1998. Lipid oxidation in fish muscle. In: Moody JJ, Lasky UV, editors. Lipid oxidations in food. 6th ed. New York: Pergamon. p 832-55.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS:
Editor(s). Date of publication. Title of publication or conference. Name of conference (if not the 2nd element); inclusive dates of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Total number of pages.
Example:
Ferguson RM, Sommer BG, editors. 1986. Proceedings of a Conference on the Clinical Management of the Renal Transplant Recipient with Cyclosporine; 1985 Nov 3-5; Palm Springs, Fla. Orlando, Fla.: Grune & Stratton. 216 p.

CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS:
Author(s) of abstract. Date of publication. Title of abstract [abstract]. Connective phrase [In]: editors of proceedings. Title of publication or name of conference; inclusive dates; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Page of program or proceedings. Abstract number.
Example:
Sung WC, Stone M, Johnson DL. 1996. Characterization of legume starches and their noodle quality [abstract]. In: IFT Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts; 1996 June 22-26; New Orleans, La. Chicago, Ill.: Institute of Food Technologists. p 53. Abstract nr 26C-14.

CONFERENCE PAPERS:
Author(s) of paper. Date of publication. Title of paper In: editors of proceedings. Title of publication or name of conference, or both; inclusive dates; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Inclusive pages of paper.

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REPORTS:
Author(s) (performing organization). Date of publication. Title. Place of publication: publisher or sponsoring organization. Report number. Contract number if any. Total number of pages. Availability statement (for example: Available from: NTIS, Springfield, Va).
Example:
[NIH] National Institutes of Health (U.S.). 1988 Dec. Report of the Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Panel, consultants to the Advisory Committee to the Director, NIH. Final report. Bethesda, Md.: NIH. 2 volumes. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, Va; PB90-155268, PB90-155276.

DISSERTATION:
Author. Date of degree. Title [type of publication, for example: dissertation, DPhil thesis, MSc thesis]. Place of institution: institution granting the degree. Total number of pages. Availability statement (for example: Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.; AAD74-23.)
Example:
Ritzmann RE. 1974. The snapping mechanism of Alpheid shrimp [DPhil thesis]. Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia. 59 p. Available from: University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.; AAD74-23. [dissertation] or [DPhil thesis] or [MSc thesis]

ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLE:
Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article. Abbreviated journal title [type of medium]; volume number(issue number):pagination. Availability statement. [Date of accession if needed].
Example:
Cisler S. 1990. MediaTracks. Public Access Comput Syst Rev [serial online];1(3):109-15. Available from: Public Access Computer Systems Forum PACS-L via the Internet. Accessed 1990 Nov 29.

WEB PAGE:
Author(s). Date of access. Title of page or article. Location of the owner of the web site: Owner of the web site. Available from: URL. Accessed date.
Example:
[USDA] U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2000. Biotechnology: USDA’s Role. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Available from: www.usda.gov. Accessed Jan 27, 2002.

PATENTS:
Name of the inventor of the patented device or process, the word "inventor"; Company name, the word "assignee. Date issued [year month day]. Title. Patent descriptor [including name of country issuing the patent and the patent number].
Example:
Harred JF, Knight AR, McIntyre JS, inventors; Dow Chemical Company, assignee. 1972 Apr 4. Epoxidation process. U.S. patent 3,654,317.

IN PRESS ITEMS:
Identify as "Forthcoming" not "In press."

UNPUBLISHED ITEMS:
Name of researcher(s). Year. Unpublished data. Institution of first researcher. Location of institution.
Example:
Sapers GM, Buchanan RL. 1997. Unpublished data. Eastern Regional Research Center. Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Wyndmoor, Pa.



Contact the JFS editorial office with questions not answered here or in the formal JFS Style Guide.

Amanda Ferguson, Associate Director of Scientific Journals, Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren, Ste. 1000, Chicago, IL 60607; phone: 312.604.0276; fax: 312-416.7921; e-mail: aferguson@ift.org.