Gluten-Free Formulation

The Science & Technology of Gluten-Free Formulating

Some consumers, whether for medical reasons such as celiac disease, sensitivity to wheat, or a lifestyle choice, are eliminating gluten from their diets. This avoidance behavior has given rise to a robust and growing gluten-free foods market. But removing gluten from foods and formulating gluten-free products with comparable eating qualities as their gluten-containing counterparts has been challenging for product developers.

Below is a compendium of 10 papers from IFT’s scientific journals that provides the latest science and research on formulating and producing high-quality gluten-free products, such as bread, extruded snacks, and rice cakes. These articles discuss novel flours and starches, nutritional enhancements, additives, processing and packaging technologies, as well as reactive components in wheat cultivars and gluten detection for specific grains.


State of the Art in Gluten-Free Research
Norah O’Shea, Elke Arendt, and Eimear Gallagher
The quality of some gluten-free products suffers due to problems associated with volume, texture, separation, appearance, flavor, and nutrition. This review article discusses recent advances in gluten-free research, notably novel gluten-free flours, food by-products, processing aids, nutrient enhancement, and new applications of gluten-free processing, which have been shown to improve the organoleptic qualities and nutritional value of gluten-free products.


Novel Approaches in Gluten-Free Breadmaking: Interface between Food Science, Nutrition, and Health
Vanessa D. Capriles and José Alfredo G. Arêas
Gluten is a structure-building protein essential for formulating leavened baked goods. Removing gluten presents technological challenges to obtaining high-quality gluten-free bread. This review focuses on contemporary approaches—flours and starches, processing and packaging technologies, nutritional ingredients, and additives—in gluten-free baking that allow improvements in structure, texture, acceptability, nutritive value, and shelf life of gluten-free bread.


A Grounded Guide to Gluten: How Modern Genotypes and Processing Impact Wheat Sensitivity
Lisa Kissing Kucek, Lynn D. Veenstra, Plaimein Amnuaycheewa, and Mark E. Sorrells
This article provides a summary of the main pathologies related to wheat in the human body, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, fructose malabsorption, and irritable bowel syndrome. Differences in reactivity are discussed for ancient, heritage, and modern wheats. Due to large variability among species and genotypes, it might be feasible to select wheat varieties with lower amounts and fewer types of reactive prolamins and fructans.


Optimization of Gluten-Free Formulations for French-Style Breads
S. Mezaize, S. Chevallier, A. Le Bail, and M. De Lamballerie
Researchers studied several hydrocolloids (carboxymethylcellulose, guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and xanthan gum) and substitutes (buckwheat flour, whole egg powder, and whey proteins) to optimize a gluten-free formulation that provided bread similar to French bread. Bread with 1.9% guar gum (w/w, total flour basis) and 5% buckwheat flour (of all flours and substitutes) mimicked French bread quality attributes.


Gluten-Free Snacks Using Plantain–Chickpea and Maize Blend: Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility, and Predicted Glycemic Index
Pamela C. Flores-Silva, Sandra L. Rodriguez-Ambriz, and Luis A. Bello-Pérez
Researchers extruded and deep-fried unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flour blends to produce gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7–18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7–13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to a chili-flavored commercial snack.


Influence of Final Baking Technologies in Partially Baked Frozen Gluten-Free Bread Quality
Núria Aguilar, Elena Albanell, Begoña Miñarro, Joan Gallardo, and Marta Capellas
Researchers compared the effects three final baking methods—convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS)—on partially baked frozen gluten-free bread. FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished by consumers in a triangular test. These two baking methods yielded the same volatile compounds profile.


Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Marco Montemurro, and Marco Gobbetti
Researchers studied the nutritional, structural, organoleptic characteristics of a new type of gluten-free bread, which was produced with wheat flour that was rendered gluten free by sourdough fermentation technology. The gluten-free bread was comparable to gluten-containing wheat in terms of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and sensory characteristics.


Rheological, Physical, and Sensory Attributes of Gluten-Free Rice Cakes Containing Resistant Starch
Kleopatra Tsatsaragkou, Maria Papantoniou, and Ioanna Mandala
Research suggests that the incorporation of resistant starch in gluten-free rice cakes may improve the nutritional profile (i.e., dietary fiber) of the products without negatively impacting the sensory characteristics.


Proteins of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), and Quinoa (Chenopodium spp.): A Food Science and Technology Perspective
Amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa are three major pseudocereals that contain high levels of starch, proteins, dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and other bioactives. Their proteins have well-balanced amino acid compositions, are more sustainable than those from animal sources, and can be consumed by patients suffering from celiac disease.


Characterization of Antibodies for Grain-Specific Gluten Detection
Girdhari M. Sharma, Prasad Rallabhandi, Kristina M. Williams, and Autusa Pahlavan
Gluten detection in foods by immunoassays can be challenging due to the differences in gluten based on the grain source. An alternate to address this difference is to develop immunoassays specific for gluten from these grains. This study characterizes the polyclonal antibodies developed for grain-specific gluten detection. The high specificity and minimal cross-reactivity of grain-specific antibodies suggest their potential use in immunoassays for accurate gluten quantitation.