J. Peter Clark

More Processing Papers and Exhibits
Last month, I previewed some of the many papers and exhibits that will be featured during the Annual Meeting & Food Expo in June. In this issue, I will preview additional selected papers and exhibits for which we received information by the deadline date.

Retort temperature control. C. Chen of McGill University will describe how the hybrid artificial intelligence techniques of neural networks and genetic algorithms can be efficiently used to model and optimize retort temperature control for thermal processing. Paper 13-1, Sunday morning

Continuous-flow thermal processes. G.D. Saravacos of National Technical University (Greece) will discuss how computer spreadsheets can be applied to the design of two continuous-flow thermal food processes, pasteurization and sterilization. Paper 13-2, Sunday morning

Bigelow’s General Method revisited. R.J. Simpson, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, (Chile) will discuss development of a new calculation technique to fully implement the General Method (developed by W.D. Bigelow during the 1920s) in a computer program, with the complement of heat transfer theory to enhance its ability to manage different processing conditions. Paper 13-3, Sunday morning

Constrained non-linear optimization. F. Erdogdu, Mersin University, (Turkey) will discuss how to apply the complex method to two different shapes to find a variable retort temperature profile to maximize the volume-average retention of thiamine during thermal processing. Paper 13-4, Sunday morning

Batch retorting. Control systems have been developed to accommodate process temperature deviations in steam-heated static retorts by calculating accumulated F values in real time, but sensor reliability is essential for accurate feedback control and numeric calculation of sterility. T.A. Haley of Purdue University will describe use of intrinsic system dynamics to detect sensor or component faults that are difficult or impossible to be detected by the operator. Paper 13-5, Sunday morning

Air impingement. A. Sarkar of University of California, Davis will describe measurement of convective heat transfer and study of airflow under impingement systems. Paper 13-6, Sunday morning

Radiofrequency dielectric heating. J. Yang of University of Connecticut will discuss computer simulation of the heating performance of radish and alfalfa sprout seeds packed in boxes during radiofrequency (RF) heating. Paper 13-7, Sunday morning

Microwave processing. T.S. Gentry of Cornell University will discuss how a properly designed microwave heating unit can be used to heat apple mash prior to juice extraction to increase phytochemicals in the juice and juice yields. Paper 13-8, Sunday morning

Infrared heating. S. Jun of Pennsylvania State University will describe how spectral manipulation of radiative heating of food components can be accomplished using a novel infrared (IR) heating system. Mathematical models based on the heat flux ratios of soy protein to starch and the IR spectral conditions support the thermal variations measured. Paper 13-9, Sunday morning

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Infrared disinfection. S. Jun of Pennsylvania State University will discuss use of selective IR to enable the differential heating of various food components. It was applied to corn meal to disinfect fungal spores of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium proliferatum. Paper 13-10, Sunday morning

Post-package pasteurization. After meat products have been pasteurized, recontamination with Listeria monocytogenes can occur during slicing and final packaging. T.A. Haley of Purdue University will discuss simulations providing the pasteurization parameters necessary to achieve a 3-D log reduction at the slowest heating zone and how these parameters depend on thermophysical properties, death-rate kinetics, and package geometry. Paper 13-11, Sunday morning

Pressure frying. Use of traditional pressure frying has been limited because of its dependence on the amount of moisture/steam released from the fried products for generating the required pressure. P. Mallikarjunan of Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University will describe use of nitrogen gas for generating the required pressure. Paper 13-12, Sunday morning

Dielectric properties. C. Defelice of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada will explain that the two important parameters that describe the dielectric properties of a material for RF heating—the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor measured relative to vacuum—depend on the composition of the food product, with water and salt having the most effect on heating ability. Paper 30D-1, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of caviar. M. Al-Holy of Washington State University will discuss how the rapid heating rate of RF and microwave heating provides a major advantage over conventional thermal processing for heat-sensitive, high-value food products. The author determined the dielectric constant and loss factors for salted and unsalted salmon and sturgeon caviar. Paper 30D-2, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of oysters. Microwave processing of oysters to eliminate pathogens while keeping their raw taste has gained interest because it is quick and simple. X. Hu of Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University will describe measurement of the dielectric properties of shucked oysters. Paper 30D-3, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of broccoli. N. Gunasekaran of Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University will describe a study determine the dielectric properties of frozen broccoli (floret and stem). Paper 30D-4, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of meats. O. Sipahioglu of Ohio State University will describe measurement of the dielectric properties of raw beef, chicken (thigh and breast), salmon, perch, cod, and nine ham samples with different moisture and ash contents. Paper 30D-5, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of produce. O. Sipahioglu of Ohio State University will describe developing predictive equations modeling dielectric properties at sterilization temperatures. The dielectric properties of individual vegetables and fruits were also modeled separately as a function of temperature. Paper 30D-6, Sunday afternoon

Dielectric properties of sweetpotato. O.O. Fasina of Auburn University will describe how to quantify the thermal properties (specific heat, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity) and dielectric properties of sweetpotato puree. Paper 30D-7, Sunday afternoon

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Thermal properties of ginseng. E.S. Lee of Chungnam National University (South Korea) will describe determination of the thermal properties of fresh ginseng, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and bulk density. Paper 30D-8, Sunday afternoon

Thermal analysis of starches. F. Fernández-Martín of Ciudad Universitaria (Spain) will discuss results of a study to evaluate thermal properties of high-pressure-treated starches with different amylose contents. Paper 30D-9, Sunday afternoon

Thermal analysis of tilapia. Osmotic treatments have often been suggested as a preliminary step in conventional air drying of fish and meat, but solutes may become incorporated in the tissue and affect denaturation temperature and heat of denaturation of the proteins. M. Medina-Vivanco of State University of Campinas (Brazil) will describe his work on the influence of sodium chloride and sucrose alone or combined on denaturation temperature and enthalpy of the proteins of tilapia fillet after immersion in aqueous solutions of those solutes. Paper 30D-10, Sunday afternoon

Ultrasonic measurement. R. Saggin of Pennsylvania State University will describe research on use of the ultrasonic reflection coefficient to measure the solid fat content (SFC) and apply it as a temper meter in chocolate manufacture. An online sensor capable of measuring the SFC in the melt would allow automated control of the tempering process. Paper 30D-11, Sunday afternoon

Ultrasound. D. Guzey of University of Tennessee will describe three different adsorption models for the effect of high-intensity ultrasound on interfacial activity and thus protein functionality (emulsification, gelation, and foaming) of bovine serum albumin. Paper 30D-14, Sunday afternoon

Infrared processing. Although near and mid-infrared are good alternatives for faster heating of foods, food processing has not benefited from IR heating primarily because of lack of information about IR absorption and penetration properties in food. M.F. Almeida of Cornell University will describe a study to measure optical properties of potato slices under irradiation by two different IR sources over a range of wavelengths in the near and mid-infrared and a range of moisture content. Paper 30D-15, Sunday afternoon

Hydrothermal processing of gluten. Wheat gluten is used as a protein source in food and feed, but its price has fallen below the cost of production in the U.S. A solution is to produce better and higher-value products, using a hydrothermal, chemical, or enzymatic process to modify the gluten. H. Singh of Kansas State University will discuss the effect of hydrothermal modification on the functionality of vital wheat gluten. Paper 30D-16, Sunday afternoon

Ohmic heating of rice starch and flours. H. An. of Louisiana State University Agricultural Center will describe using rapid visco-analysis (RVA) to determine the effect of ohmic heating on pasting characteristics of rice starch. Paper 30D-17, Sunday afternoon

Extrusion of starch–lipid complexes. J. Guan of University of Nebraska will describe use of response surface methodology (RSM) to study the functional properties of 25% amylose corn starch extruded samples blended with nine types of lipids and extruded at three temperatures. Paper 30D-18, Sunday afternoon

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Extraction and purification of catfish oil. S. Sathivel of Louisiana State University will discuss determination of melting point, specific heat capacity, and enthalpy of catfish visceral oils collected during extraction (crude oil) and purification (degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization). Paper 30D-19, Sunday afternoon

Maillard browning. C.P. Sherwin of University of Minnesota will discuss the results of a study to determine in a model system the effect of humectants, water activity, and moisture content on Tg, the Maillard browning rate, and the local mobility of a reactant. Paper 30D-20, Sunday afternoon

Dehydration of carrot. Z. Pan of University of California–Davis will present a study of the effect of dehydration methods on beta- and alpha-carotene contents in a carrot by-product and the possibility of using the dehydrated product as a functional ingredient in feed. Paper 30D-23, Sunday afternoon

Deep-fat frying. M.E. Sosa-Morales of Universidad de las Américas-Puebla (Mexico) will present a study on the evolution of color in the crust during deep-fat frying of donuts. Paper 30D-24, Sunday afternoon

Osmotic dehydration of sardine. G.V. Reyes IV of Universidad de Oriente will discuss texture and color changes during osmotic drying of sardine sheets. Paper 30D-25, Sunday afternoon

Calcium fortification of apple. D.M. Salvatjori of Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) will discuss use of vacuum impregnation followed by atmospheric impregnation, as well as the feasibility of blanching beforehand, to increase the final calcium content of an apple matrix. Paper 91C-1, Tuesday afternoon

Calcium fortification of mushroom. D.M. Salvatori of Universidad de Buenos Aires will also discuss use of vacuum impregnation to introduce physiologically active components such as calcium in highly porous tissues such as mushroom to develop functional foods. Paper 91C-2, Tuesday afternoon

Irradiation of apple. R.G. Moreira of Texas A&M University will discuss how the viability of pathogenic organisms on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables can be significantly reduced by low energy electron beam irradiation. The challenge for irradiation of fruits and vegetables is to achieve a uniform dose distribution over the entire surface. Paper 91C-3, Tuesday afternoon

Radiofrequency control of insects in walnuts. S. Wang of Washington State University will discuss use of RF to control codling moth, Indianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm in-shell walnuts .Paper 91C-4, Tuesday afternoon

High-pressure throttling. V. Areekul of University of Georgia will describe research to determine if a continuous-flow high-pressure throttling (HPT) process could eliminate spores in honey. Paper 91C-6, Tuesday afternoon

Supercritical fluid extraction. J.J. Rhodes of University of Georgia will describe how phosphatidylcholine in inedible egg can be isolated by supercritical fluid extraction for use as an inexpensive source of an ingredient with high nutritional and functional properties. Paper 91C-7, Tuesday afternoon

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Supercritical fluid extraction. K. Gorostiaga Martino of Michigan State University will describe a study to evaluate the extraction of quercetin from onion skins, using modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Paper 91C-8, Tuesday afternoon

Moderate-electric-field processing. I. Sensoy of Ohio State University will discuss the effect of moderate electric field (MEF) processing on permeability of cell membranes of leafy materials. High electric fields can cause either reversible or irreversible rupture of cell membrane. Paper 91C-9, Tuesday afternoon

Ohmic heating. C.P. Samaranayake of Ohio State University, will describe the electrochemical behavior of some electrodes at different pHs under ohmic heating conditions. Paper 91C-10, Tuesday afternoon

Supercritical fluid extraction. Y. Choi of Kyungpook National University (South Korea) will discuss extraction of carotenoids from persimmon peel by solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and microwave-assisted extraction. Paper 91C-11, Tuesday afternoon

Ultrasound-assisted extraction. H. Li of University of Tennessee will discuss use of ultrasound to enhance extraction of lipids from plant seeds such as soybean. Paper 91C-12, Tuesday afternoon

Flowability of powders. P. Juliano of Washington State University will discuss a new method to determine flowability index of powders and relate it to conventional flowability. Paper 91C-14, Tuesday afternoon

High hydrostatic pressure and cocoa butter. J.H. Oh of Washington State University will discuss the effects of high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) treatment of cocoa butter melt on subsequent crystallization. Paper 91C-15, Tuesday afternoon

Vapor-liquid equilibrium. S. Wichchukit of University of California, Davis will discuss measurement of the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of free fatty acid mixtures of butyric, caproic, caprylic, and lauric acids in a single-stage flash evaporator. Paper 91C-16, Tuesday afternoon

Microwave-assisted deep-fat frying. M.Y. Chen. of Food Industry Research & Development Institute (Taiwan) will describe the effect on oil absorption by instant noodles during deep-fat frying by introducing microwave heating at different stages in the frying process. Paper 91C-18, Tuesday afternoon

Vacuum frying of potato chips. R.G. Moreira of Texas A&M University will discuss use of vacuum frying as a technique to produce potato chips with low oil content. Paper 91C-19, Tuesday afternoon

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Cooling of strawberries. A. Sarkar of University of California, Davis will discuss laboratory-scale testing and modeling of industrial cooling of strawberries to determine the typical cooling times. Paper 91C-20, Tuesday afternoon

Interactive computer-generated psychrometric chart. F. Erdogdu of Mersin University (Turkey) will report on a study to develop a computer-generated psychrometric chart within a specified range, make the determination of different properties easier, and let the users play what-if games visually on the interactive chart to gain a better understanding of different processes. Paper 91C-21, Tuesday afternoon

Air-impingement heat transfer. B.A. Anderson of University of California of Davis will report on a study to determine the spatial variation in heat transfer coefficient under an impingement jet on a cylinder. Paper 91C-22, Tuesday afternoon

Electrolyzed oxidizing water. B. Cornelius of University of Georgia will discuss a study to determine the corrosion effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on food processing equipment surfaces. Paper 91C-23, Tuesday afternoon

Pasteurization/sterilization of macaroni and cheese. Y. Wang of Washington State University will report on a study of the dielectric constants, loss factors, and penetration depths of whey protein gel, liquid whey protein mixture, macaroni noodles, cheese sauce, and macaroni and cheese. Paper 91C-24, Tuesday afternoon

Optimizing batch processing. R.J. Simpson of Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (Chile) will report on a research study whose aim was to propose and analyze several criteria and methodologies for optimum design and operation of batch-canning food plants. Paper 91C-25, Tuesday afternoon

Microwave/convection heating of fish mince. S.N. Abdul-Malek of Rutgers University will discuss the effects of microwave/convective heating on the texture of fish mince. Paper 91C-26, Tuesday afternoon

Canning of skipjack tuna. J.W. Bell of North Carolina State University will discuss a study to determine the effects of major processing variables on canned skipjack tuna yield. Paper 91C-27, Tuesday afternoon

Microwave roasting of blanched peanuts. Blanching to remove the seed coat from peanuts consists of heating peanuts to remove a minimal amount of moisture followed by gentle abrasion. T.A. Katz of North Carolina State University will describe a novel microwave system, utilizing uniform energy, to reduce energy costs while decreasing heating times. Paper 91C-28, Tuesday afternoon

Microwave blanching of peanuts. T.H. Sanders of North Carolina State University will report on the effect of initial moisture content on blanching efficiency, shelf-life, and flavor quality of microwave-heated peanuts. Paper 91C-29, Tuesday afternoon

Coffee bean roasting. R. Geiger of Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich (Switzerland) will discuss the influence of various roasting parameters on the formation of carbon dioxide in coffee beans during roasting and its subsequent rate of release. Paper 91C-30, Tuesday afternoon

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Xanthan gum fermentation. C.H. Hsu University of Maryland will describe a novel, centrifugal packed-bed reactor that improves the energy-intensive, low-yield fermentation process for xanthan gum caused by limited aeration. The labscale reactor produces cell-free broth with elevated productivity and was used to study the effects of polyethylenimiune PEI on the immobilization of Xanthomonas campestris during scaleup. Paper 91C-31, Tuesday afternoon

Spray drying of brewer’s yeast. M.A. Salgado-Cervantes of Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico) will report that use of spray drying and fluidized-bed drying, it is possible to obtain a brewer’s dried yeast with an efficient viability and fermentative ability, avoiding the propagation and fresh yeast transport. Paper 91C-32, Tuesday afternoon

Rice drying and aeration. C. Jia of University of Arkansas will discuss development of interactive prediction software for in-bin drying or aeration of rice. Paper 91C-33, Tuesday afternoon

Effect of air humidity on baking. M.R. Zareifard of Agriculture Canada will report on research to investigate the effect of air humidity on the quality of a cake. Paper 91C-34, Tuesday afternoon

Microwave heating. Y. Chen of University of Arkansas will describe research to evaluate the effects of different modified starches in fillings and coating of modified starch on the inner surface of skin on moisture changes in spring rolls during microwave heating. Paper 91C-36, Tuesday afternoon

Effect of corn drying on starch quality. C. Suárez Sr. of Universidad de Buenos Aires will report research to survey the potential effects of corn drying on starch recovery and physical and functional properties of wet-milled starch. Paper 91C-37, Tuesday afternoon

Extrusion of corn meal. F.K. Saalia of University of Georgia will report on a study to determine the influence of reverse paddles and their position on the severity of screw extrusion of corn meal. Paper 91C-39 of, Tuesday afternoon

Dehulling/softening/extrusion of chickpea. R. Cuaúhtémoc Sr. Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (Mexico) will discuss how the effect of the dehulling/softening/extrusion process on quality characteristics of fresh and hardened chickpeas. Paper 91C-40, Tuesday afternoon

Rice milling. Q. Zhang of University of Arkansas will describe a study of the mechanical properties—fracture energy, fracture strength, and elastic modulus—to help understand the failure mechanism of rice kernels during processing. Paper 91C-41, Tuesday afternoon

Inline Measurement of viscosity. T.A. Haley of Purdue University will compare the performance and calibration of three in-line viscometers (oscillating sphere, tube, and coaxial cylinder viscometers) in measuring viscosity of a power-law fluid (CMC solutions at different concentrations). Paper 42-4, Monday morning

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Blanching of processed potatoes. R.L. Young of University of Manitoba will describe the effect of starch swelling properties on the texture of processed potatoes. Paper 42-10, Monday morning

High-pressure inactivation of Clostridium perfringens. E. Papafragkou of University of Delaware will discuss high-hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP) inactivation of Clostridium perfringens in meat products. Bacterial spores have proven exceptionally resistant to inactivation by HPP; the mechanism for spore inactivation is presumed to involve pressure/heat-induced germination followed by inactivation of pressure-sensitive outgrowth. Paper 55-1, Monday afternoon

High-pressure destruction of E. coli and L. mesenteroides. E. Riahi of McGill University will describe a study to evaluate the use of HPP for the destruction of selected spoilage (L. mesenteroides) and contaminant (E. coli) microorganisms in apple juice. Paper 55-2, Monday afternoon

High-pressure inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica 35669. Inactivation of microorganisms by heat and other processing methods has been traditionally assumed to follow first-order kinetics, but significant deviations from linearity have been observed frequently in the literature. H. Chen of University of Delaware will discuss a study to examine the inactivation kinetics of Y. enterocolitica 35669 by HPP and evaluate the goodness-of-fit of linear and nonlinear models. Paper 55-3, Monday afternoon

High-pressure inactivation of Vibrio. X. Hu of Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University will describe a study to verify the procedures for obtaining microbial inactivation kinetics models for HPP processing, including determining the microbial inactivation kinetics of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in buffer and oysters. Paper 55-4, Monday afternoon

Resistance to HPP of Listeria monocytogenes. A. Tay of Ohio State University will discuss a study of the variability among L. monocytogenes strains in response to HPP. Paper 55-5, Monday afternoon

High-pressure-processing of orange juice. P.S. Taoukis of National Technical University of Athens will compare the effect of conventional thermal pasteurization and HHP on nutrient stability of reconstituted orange juice. Paper 55-6, Monday afternoon

Browning of HPP-treated apple slices. High pressure can eliminate spoilage microorganisms on fruit while inducing little change in product characteristics, but it causes immediate browning of some fruits. M.H. Lau of Kraft Foods, Inc., will discuss a study to determine the effect of different anti-browning agents in conjunction with HPP on the browning, quality, and microbial stability of apple slices in syrup. Paper 55-7, Monday afternoon

HPP pretreatment of dried apple slices. H. Ramaswamy of McGill University will describe a study to evaluate HPP pretreatment for enhancing the quality of osmotically dehydrated apple slices. Paper 55-8, Monday afternoon

HPP effect on beta-lactoglobulin. M.K. Walker of Oregon State University will discuss denaturing of beta-lactoglobulin by optimized HHP treatment to increase its functionality while minimizing protein aggregation. Paper 55-9, Monday afternoon

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Fermentation simulation. M. Dhanasekharan of Fluent Inc. will describe a study to simulate flow patterns in the biomass ethanol fermentation tank, model gas production rates, and validate the simulations with experimental data. Paper 58-1, Monday afternoon

Modeling post-package pasteurization. T.A. Haley of Purdue University will describe a numerical scheme to predict the evolution of the temperature field over time during post-package pasteurization of sliced bologna. Paper 58-2, Monday afternoon

Infrared cooking. P. Mallikarjunan of Virginia Polytechnic & State University will discuss development of a model to describe moisture and fat losses from beef patties during cooking by far-infrared radiation. Paper 58-3, Monday afternoon

Microwave processing of fish gel. X. Hu of Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University will present a mathematical model to describe the heating profile in fish gel, study the effects of shape and the composition of the fish gel on heating profiles, and find the optimum composition of fish gel to simulate oyster. Paper 58-4, Monday afternoon

Near-infrared oven heating. M.F. Almeida of Cornell University will describe a study on the radiative heat flux delivered to the food surface in an oven as a function of food and oven parameters, using a halogen source. Paper 58-5, Monday afternoon

Modeling microwave baking. J. Zhang of Cornell University will discuss modeling for baking processes in which volume expansion is large and strongly interacts with temperature and moisture distributions. Paper 58-6, Monday afternoon

Modeling E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. R.A. Flores of USDA/ARS/ERRC will describe modeling of the distribution patterns of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef when a contaminated beef trim was introduced into a batch of uncontaminated beef prior to grinding. Paper 58-8, Monday afternoon

Ohmic heating of potato and whey protein. C.J. Doona of U.S. Army-Natick Soldier Center will present research to verify the uniform temperature distribution and calculate heat transfer coefficients in ohmically heated potato and whey protein gel samples configured as equivalent electrical circuits using intrinsic chemical marker analysis and continuous MRI methods. Paper 58-10, Monday afternoon

Thermal process evaluation. P.S. TaoukisNational Technical University of Athens will discuss research to develop a prototype time–temperature indicator based on the inactivation of xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and evaluate its potential for thermal process evaluation. Paper 58-11, Monday afternoon

Food and biomass systems for space exploration. C.M. Gregson of Rutgers University will present discuss calculation of the cost/benefit of growing and processing food in spacecraft as a function of crop area and mission length and to determine the optimum crop mix for each scenario. Paper 71-1, Tuesday morning

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Clean-production concepts. B. Ditgens of University of Bonn will discuss development of new processes for the separation of valuable substances from product and process streams and the integration of membranes in production chains using simulation programs. Paper 71-2, Tuesday morning

Nanotechnology. J.L. Kokini of Rutgers University will discuss the new wave of thinking represented by nanotechnology and and its potential in food science and technology.Paper 71-3, Tuesday morning

Effect of drying on fermentative ability. M.A. Salgado-Cervantes of Instituto Tecnólogico de Veracruz (Mexico) will discuss the effect of spray and fluidized-bed drying on the fermentative ability (growth and glucose consumption kinetics as well as alcohol production) of brewer’s yeast. Paper 71-7, Tuesday morning

Preparation of granule soya lecithin. H. An of Da Lian University of Technology (China) will report on use of an extraction technique (emulsification) to extract granule soya lecithin from wet gum. Paper 71-8, Tuesday morning

Plant protein concentration. B.P. Lamsal of University of Wisconsin-Madison will describe an investigation of the effects of the operating parameters—pressure, rotor speed, and membrane clearance—on the steady flux for dynamic rotary filtration of a plant protein solution. Paper 71-9, Tuesday morning

Controlled release. K.L.B. Chang of National Taiwan Ocean University will describe preparation of wet extruded sucrose granules containing alginate and pectin and discuss the pH sensitivity of extruded granules and their effectiveness in the controlled release of model food and pharmaceutical compounds. Paper 71-10, Tuesday morning

Mixing in a twin-screw extruder. Y.J. Choi of University of California, Davis will describe MRI analysis of laminar mixing in a self-wiping co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Paper 71-11, Tuesday morning

Pasta filata cheesemaking. C. Yu of University of Wisconsin-Madison will describe development of a mathematical model to describe the flow behavior and heat transfer in a twin-screw stretcher-cooker in mozzarella cheesemaking, and investigate how the system variables are affected by operating conditions. Paper 71-12, Tuesday morning

Miniature-scale equipment includes plate, tube, and direct-steam-injection HTST/UHT systems, scraped-surface systems for margarine and ice cream, edible oils processing equipment, spray dryer/chillers, and carbonator /filler/cappers. They allow developers to use very small amounts of product while gaining information to scale up to pilot plant or production plant with confidence. The new FT84 miniature-scale microwave pasteurizer/UHT system can take product from ambient temperature to 140ºC in less than 1 sec with a top temperature of 160ºC possible. This rapid heating minimizes the negative effects of heat treatment. No heated surface is used, so burning of product is avoided. Throughputs of 1–40 L/hr are possible. Armfield Ltd., Bridge House, West St., Ringwood, Hampshire, Bh24 1DY, U.K. (phone +44 1425 478 781, fax +44 1425 470 916, www.armfield.co.uk), Booth 2514

Sanitary powder packaging and handling systems for value-added products include carousel bag fillers, Inline Bag Fillers, Compact Bag Fillers, Bag Presenters, Heat Sealers, Stratapac Heatsealer, and Bag Handling Equipment. The award-winning Stratapac packaging system offers a tough, two-ply plastic sack that allows the customer the ability to package either the new Stratapac bags, or traditional paper multi-ply bags on the packaging line by means of a sector switch. Patented technology seals the inner and outer bags separately, independently, and simultaneously. Avapac Div. (also known as Avalon Engineering) of Niro, Inc., 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson, WI 54016 (phone 715-386-9371, fax 715-386-9376, www.niroinc.com), Booth 4527

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Evaporation, distillation, rectification, and crystallization process technology and systems are available for food, beverage, dairy, and other applications, as well as environmental applications. GEA Evaporation Technologies, 9165 Rumsey Rd., Columbia, MD 21045 (phone 410-992-7400, fax 410-992-7426, www.evaptec.com), Niro, Inc. Booth 4527

Membrane filtration systems for food, dairy, and nutraceutical, and biotechnologyapplications, are available. Configurations include spiral and tubular organic membranes, ceramic membranes, and stainless-steel membranes. Pilot plants are available for on-site testing at customer locations. GEA Filtration Div. of Niro, Inc., 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson, WI 54016 (phone 715-386-9371, fax 715-386-9376, www.geafiltration.com), Niro, Inc. Booth 4527

Processing equipment being exhibited in Niro, Inc.’s booth include offerings from the company’s various divisions. Niro Process Technology specializes in engineering freeze concentration and crystallization plants and related systems. Applications range from wastewater treatment to concentration of juices, from ice beer to coffee concentrate. Niro Soavi provides high-pressure pumps, homogenizers, and microsizers separately or as complete skid-mounted systems. The Energy Series high-pressure pumps and homogenizers includes 19 production models and 5 laboratory and pilot-scale models. Niro, Inc., 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson, WI 54016 (phone 715-386-9371, fax 715-386-9376, www.niroinc.com), Booth 4527

Solids processing equipment available includes fluidized-bed processors, high-shear vertical granulators, pan coasters, product lifting and discharging devices, automated process control systems, sieves/mills, bins, bin blenders, and complete systems integration for material handling and controls. Fluid-bed coating technologies include the Wurster HS system for robust coating processes and reduced processing times and the Stratos air-suspension total product containment system. Also available are turnkey engineering, installation, and validation services, as well as contract services for formulation development, process development, pilot production, full-scale manufacturing, analytical testing, and client-site process optimization, troubleshooting, and training. Glatt Air Techniques, Inc., 20 Spear Rd., Ramsey, NJ 07446 (phone 201-825-8700, fax 201-818-5580), Booth 8602

Belt cooker, the National Bi-Made Belt Cooker, features a seam-welded, stainless-steel perforated product conveyor with external return for cleaning in place. It can be operated with deluge hot water and/or steam-injection modes. The cooker can be used for a variety of food products with precise control of uniformity and repeatability. Other thermal processing equipment available include dehydrators, dryers, roasters, blanchers, and associated equipment, with single-stage, multi-stage, and multi-tier conveyor systems with gas, steam, or electric heat. National Drying Machinery Co., 2190 Hornig Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19116 (phone 215-464-6070, fax 215-464-4096, www.nationaldrying.com), Booth 5121

Liquid and dry coating systems provide uniform coating of snacks, cereals, baked goods, pastas, pet foods, vegetables, and other products. Systems available include the Micro-Meter “Airless” Liquid Applicator, “Clog-Free” Slurry Encoater, Uni-spense Dry Ingredient Distributor, Enhancer Electrostatic Seasoning and Powder Applicator, Powder Xpress Material Transfer System, and Soft Flight Coating Drum & Vibratory Base Product Feeder. Spray Dynamics, 108 Bolte Ln., Saint Clair, MO 63077 (phone 636-629-7366, fax 636-629-7455, www.spraydynamics.com), Booth 7801

Extrusion cooking systems range in size from small laboratory and research applications to large production applications. In addition to 14 sizes of twin-screw and single-screw extruders, such systems typically include continuous drying and toasting ovens, mixers, blenders, automated control systems and enrobing equipment. Wenger Manufacturing, Inc., 714 Main St., Sabetha, KS 66534 (phone 785-284-2133, fax 785-284-3861), Booth 5840

Contributing Editor
Consultant to the Process Industries
Oak Park, Ill.

In This Article

  1. Food Processing & Packaging