J. Peter Clark

Many Papers and Exhibits on Processing
The technical papers related to food engineering and food processing at this year’s IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo® address several novel and pioneering developments, including feeding on long space trips, nonthermal preservation methods, and microencapsulation. Exhibitors of processing equipment and related products are offering a variety of new and interesting innovations. Here are brief descriptions of selected papers and exhibits in these areas.


• Space Food Systems. A symposium on advanced food systems for long-duration space missions will be held on Sunday morning.

V.L. Kloeris of the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration’s Johnson Space Center will discuss how an understanding of present space flight food systems will help the listener to interpret and put into context the requirements and constraints imposed on food systems for future long-duration space missions. Paper 2-1

M.H. Perchonok of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, will discuss the challenges in the development of a long-duration space mission food system. She will describe how NASA is working toward future long-duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. These missions require development of both a Transit Food System and a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different, since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity). Paper 2-2

J.E. Marcy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State Univ., will describe the work of the Food Packaging working group on potential food packaging technologies for a space mission. The group identified and analyzed technologies that would provide protection for the food from spoilage and chemical reactions. The primary objective was to define the packaging materials that would meet the needs of the Advanced Food System (e.g., a shelf life of 3–5 years). The group also considered the impact on solid waste management, food and packaging mass and volume, and crew time. Paper 2-3

G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, Washington State Univ., will discuss potential food preservation technologies for future space missions. He will tell how current conventional and emerging nonthermal and thermal emerging technologies have been classified using NASA’s technology readiness level criteria. Minimization of mass and volume, water usage, power requirements, crew time, and size of equipment are some of many factors that play a decisive role for selection of the best technologies. Paper 2-4

P.J. Slade, National Center for Food Safety & Technology, will discuss potential postharvest processing technologies for a space mission. He will describe how postharvest processing technologies for long-duration space missions would be one of three types, namely, in-transit, surface habitat, or evolved base. Fresh vegetable crops grown in transit or on such a base may include carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, radish, spinach, chard, cabbage, and onion. On the planetary surface, potatoes, wheat, soybeans, rice, and peanuts may also be included in the list. A key consideration in the design and development of technologies to process such a diverse range of raw commodities is whether or not the product would be produced in small quantities “just in time,” or processed in relatively larger quantities and packaged and stored for later consumption. Paper 2-5

S.J. French, NASA-Johnson Space Center, will discuss NASA-funded research projects that have contributed to academia, industry, and government efforts to improve food systems. NASA’s future contributions will increase with four Small Business Innovative Research grants and two NASA Research Announcement grants having been awarded in the area of food research. Paper 2-6

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• Electron-Beam Technology. A symposium on electron-beam irradiation will be held on Sunday morning.

L.A. Braby, Texas A&M Univ., will describe how it is possible to produce the same biological effects as other forms or radiation using high-energy electrons directly. This has several advantages: In contrast to a gamma-ray irradiation facility, there is no radioactive source involved; the electrons are produced by a relatively simple electronic machine that produces no radiation when it is turned off. Direct use of electrons is also much more efficient than using x-rays because x-ray production starts with high-energy electrons, and the process of converting the electron energy to x-rays (called Bremsstrahlung) is very inefficient. However, electrons have relatively short range in most materials, so the material treated must be relatively thin, and the shape of the material may have to be carefully planned to obtain the desired dose distribution. Paper 5-1

K.E. Nanke, SureBeam Corp., will discuss dosimetry as it relates to E-beam irradiation. He will focus on the technical aspects of dosimetry and dose-mapping. Paper 5-2

G.D. Sadler, National Center for Food Safety & Technology, will address selection of suitable packaging materials for Ebeam use. He will discuss how polymers, depending on their chemical characteristics, are resistant to irradiation up to a certain level. Generally speaking, any polymer (including paper) is resistant to changes in properties up to 10 Gy of treatment. The irradiation resistance of polymers depends on the extent of substitution, presence of hydrogen atoms on carbon, and presence of aromatic or conjugated structures. Paper 5-3

A.F. Mendonca, Iowa State Univ., will tell how E-beam irradiation is highly effective for inactivating foodborne microorganisms to improve the microbial safety and shelf life of food. As with other types of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays, E-beam irradiation inactivates microorganisms by breaking molecular bonds in their DNA. Irradiation-induced damage to DNA is caused by direct deposition of energy in the bacterial cell or via production of free radicals from the radiolysis of water. The antimicrobial action is affected by several factors, including irradiation dose, temperature, population and types of bacteria, physiological state of the organism, gaseous environment, and food preservation method. Paper 5-4

S.D. Pillai, Texas A&M Univ., will discuss inactivation of viruses and protozoa by E-beam technology. Viral and protozoan decontamination of foods and drinking water is a key step in the protection of public health. Even though E-beam technology has been proven to be effective against bacterial pathogens and protozoa, ionizing radiation is generally thought to be less effective against viruses. It has been argued that the reduced size of viruses is responsible for the reduced ineffectiveness. The mechanism of microbial inactivation by E-beam is believed to be the nucleic acid targets. The nucleic acid may be directly damaged, or there may be indirect damage due to OH radicals originating from water. The extent of indirect damage can, however, be modulated by the presence of scavengers such as bicarbonate. In addition to nucleic acid damage, there are reports that the protein coat may also be the site of ionizing radiation damage. Paper 5-5

Pillai will also provide a video tour of the Texas A&M University E-beam Food Research Facility, presenting an overview of the steps that are involved in dose-mapping, how food products are received at the facility, how a specific irradiation dose is delivered, and how the irradiation dose is measured. The occupational safety attributes of the facility will be highlighted. The presentation will also provide specific information regarding QA/QC in E-beam irradiation that food safety individuals in industry and academic researchers need to be aware of. Paper 5-6

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• High-Pressure Processing. Two symposia will be held on high-pressure processing, one on Sunday morning and the other on Monday morning.

In the Sunday morning symposium, C.P. Dunne, U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center, Natick, Mass., will discuss challenges, opportunities, and synergies in applications of high pressure to food processing. The operational goal for HPP pasteurization to achieve a reduction of 5–6 logs of vegetative bacterial populations most likely to be found in the chosen food material has been met in a variety of foods. A reduction in the treatment time or pressure required to achieve equivalent levels of bacterial kill or injury may be accomplished by HPP at modestly elevated temperatures or at pH <5. HPP can produce shelf-stable foods with pH of 4.2 or lower and extended shelf life refrigerated foods. Paper 7-1

M.H. Lau, Kraft Foods, Inc., will discuss high-pressure sterilization (HPS), a process for producing low-acid, shelf-stable foods by using heat and pressure synergistically to sterilize foods at lower temperatures and with less total thermal treatment than traditional canning (retorting) methods. The author will report on studies of HPS applied to a variety of foods, including whole muscle meats, fish, vegetables, eggs, and starches (pasta/potatoes/rice) to determine differences in sensory attributes compared to conventional retorting. Paper 7-2

E.V. Raghubeer, Flow International Corp., will report on effect of HPP on Listeria monocytogenes inactivation in RTE meat and poultry products. Paper 7-3

D.G. Hoover, Univ. of Delaware, will review the food products produced through HPP, including guacamole, salsa, and shell oysters and will discuss applications of HPP to raw seafoods and fresh low-acid and acidified products will be covered. Problematic microorganisms (such as viruses and spore-forming bacteria) in specific foods and beverages will be discussed, along with possible solutions for control using hurdle technology. Paper 7-4

M.Y. Baik, Kyung Hee Univ., will discuss NMR and DSC analysis of physical changes to model food systems using HPP. HPP induces physical changes in the constituents of foods. The author studied the ability of HPP at room temperature to transform wheat, corn, and potato starch pastes into gels, and compare pressure-formed gels to those formed by thermal treatment. The physical properties of the gels were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T1 and T2) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, melting curves using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and birefringence using optical light microscopy. Paper 7-5

M.F. Patterson, Queen’s Univ. Belfast, will report on a study to determine the effect of high pressure (up to 600 MPa for 2 min at 20°C) on the quality of mussels, oysters, and prawns during storage for four weeks at 2°C. Paper 7-6

In the Monday morning symposium, S. Parnell, Avomex, Inc., will discuss successful application to provide an avocado product (guacamole) with a fresh avocado flavor and a 30-day or longer shelf life. The company has obtained similar results with other fruits and vegetables and has begun commercial production of HPP salsa and orange juice. Paper 34-1

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P.L. Minerich, Hormel Foods Corp., will discuss use of HPP to process hams. Listeria monocytogenes can be one of the most challenging pathogens to control, with its tendency to hide in the food processing environment and threaten post-processing contamination. High-pressure pasteurization has emerged as a method capable of delivering significant pathogen lethality with minimal to no adverse effects on the product. One such challenging product is dry-cured ham. Being a very dense, dry,and relatively large product, the prosciutto ham did not lend itself to other post-packaging control methods without creating problems, such as off-flavors or soft textures. High-pressure pasteurization was investigated as a method that could deliver the desired control and maintain the quality of the product without the need for special labeling. Paper 34-2

S. Palaniappan, Minute Maid Co., will discuss commercialization of HPP for orange juice. The author will show that HPP of orange juice minimizes the quality degradation during the treatment, resulting in a high-quality end product. He will compare nutritional and sensory quality of HPP juice against fresh and thermally processed juices and will also discuss consumer, producer, and regulatory views regarding use of a “fresh” claim. Paper 34-3

M.T. Morrissey, Oregon State Univ., will cover the use of HPP in the oyster industry. Oysters are the most abundant harvested shellfish in the world. They are filter feeders and have a varied microbial flora which will eventually lead to spoilage and may, at times, pose a threat to public health. There have been several cases of severe illness associated with the consumption of raw oysters in the U.S. with the majority being attributed to Vibrio species. Studies have shown that HPP treatment is effective in reducing total bacterial load in oyster meats and that the process could be used for mechanically shucking oysters by detaching the adductor muscle from the shell. Paper 34-4

V.M. Balasubramaniam, Ohio State Univ., will discuss HPP for low-acid foods. High-pressure processing of low-acid foods is of interest because of its ability to inactivate harmful bacterial spores at moderate temperatures and without the use of chemical preservatives. Successful HPP validation will require a multidisciplinary approach integrating basic microbiological, physical, chemical, and engineering principles to demonstrate the uniformity and sterility of the process. The presentation will provide an overview on current research status on high pressure sterilization of low-acidfoods. Paper 34-5

A. Suzuki, Niigata Univ., will discuss the current development of HPP foods in Japan. It has been more than 10 years since HPP was been proposed as an alternative food processing method to traditional heat treatment in Japan. In 1992, HPP apple, strawberry, and pineapple jams appeared in the Japanese market as the first commercialized high pressure processed foods in the world. The commercialization of high pressure processed orange and grapefruit juices was not successful because of the small market available for them. Since 1995, HPP grain products such as rice cake, hypoallergic rice, and single-portioned cooked rice appeared on the market. A research group of about 60 food companies is conducting research on HPP foods. Paper 34-6

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• Microencapsulation. A symposium on Sunday morning will cover advances in microencapsulation techniques.

M.A. Porzio, McCormick & Co., Inc., will describe how flavor encapsulation is a unique subset in the field of microencapsulation. The very characteristics of the flavor, i.e., a complex mixture of individual chemicals including the critical volatile or “aromatics” components, define the specific flavor’s organoleptic and physical properties. However, these properties in turn limit the technical options available in the development of a successful flavor encapsulation and delivery system. Ultimately, it is the product application requirements and the concomitant release conditions that control the choice of the encapsulation technology. In identifying a specific encapsulation technology, the knowledgeable specialist selects a suitable, established technique and then modifies the technology in various, often proprietary, ways. In a number of these systems, the generation of a glassy state carrier needs to be considered. Paper 17-1

S. Shefer, Salvona LLC, will discuss how nanotechnology is used to address one of the major challenges in flavor delivery—long-lasting sensation of flavor in the mouth. Flavors and sensory ingredients are exposed for a very short time to the sensory organs in the mouth during mastication. As the food is being swallowed and ingested, the sensory experience is diminished. A line of nanospheres composed of a blend of food-approved hydrophobic and bioadhesive polymers has been developed. They have a diameter of less than 1 micron and are loaded with 10–20% flavor or other sensory ingredients, such as a cooling agent. They are produced by a suspension technology that has been modified to generate nanospheres with a narrow range of particle size. Paper 17-2

H. Reuscher, Wacker Biochem Corp., will discuss cyclodextrins, bucket-shaped cyclic oligosaccharides composed of 6, 7, and 8 anhydroglucose units. Produced by enzymatic conversion of starch, their donut shape enables them to carry and protect nutritional and functional ingredients such as flavors, lipids, vitamins, plant extracts, etc., on the molecular level. Additionally, they are used to mask off-odors and off-flavors and to reduce unpleasant taste effects. Cyclodextrin formulations with hydrophobic ingredients, including oils, result in powders that are both heat and shear stable. The ingredient is also protected against oxidation. Additionally, these powders are easily dispersed in water for use in liquid products. Paper 17-3

R.J. Versic, Ronald T. Dodge Co., will describe how Barrett Green at the National Cash Register Co. (now NCR Co.) invented microencapsulation by coacervation in the 1950s. This method of obtaining controlled delivery was originally used for carbonless paper, No Paper Required ™, and Scratch ‘n’ Sniff fragrance samplers. Early use of gelatin-walled coacervation in food applications was hampered by the use of gluteraldehyde (glutaric dialdehyde) as a cross-linking agent and the perception that coacervative microencapsulation was too expensive. Recent technical and commercial developments have now made coacervation a viable form of controlled delivery in food applications. Paper 17-4

M. Rosenberg, Univ. of California, Davis, will discuss how microencapsulation provides unique opportunities for protecting sensitive ingredients against deterioration or loss, pending consumption and for delivering bioactive compounds, nutrients, and nutraceuticals. A need to introduce new, highly functional, GRAS microencapsulating agents exists. Whey proteins exhibit unique functionality as wall materials for encapsulation of lipids (up to 75% w/w), and the layer of whey proteins adsorbed at the oil/water interface provides sensitive lipids with long-term oxidative stability. This type of functionality has been further extended in developing highly functional composite microcapsules consisting of whey protein–coated lipid droplets embedded in wall systems consisting of wall solids with poor encapsulating properties. Wall systems consisting of whey proteins or blends of the latter with carbohydrates allow attaining high retention of volatiles during microencapsulation by spray drying and thus provide means to prepare water-soluble capsules containing a high load of flavor and aroma compounds. Paper 17-5

J. Lakkis, Pfizer, Inc., will discuss use of microencapsulation for delivering nutraceuticals. There is a growing interest in supplementing foods with nutraceutical ingredients such as antioxidants, phytochemicals, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotic bacteria, and others. However, incorporating these components into existing food formulations can present many challenges due to high concentrations of actives required to provide specific health benefits; disagreeable taste and aroma associated with most nutraceutical actives; their chemical instability and undesirable interactions with other ingredients in the food system; and the risk of reduced bioavailability due to the active’s inability to reach its target sites to provide a desired functionality. The author will explore a variety of microencapsulation technologies that can be used to alleviate some of these problems. Paper 17-6

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• Pulsed Electric Fields. A symposium on Sunday afternoon will address pulsed electric fields.

Q.H. Zhang, Ohio State Univ., will review pulsed electric field (PEF) technology, which has been studied and developed during the last 40 years. In recent years, PEF emerged from a laboratory concept to a process that can handle a flow rate of interest to industry. With demonstrated product quality and shelf life, PEF shows potential as a nonthermal pasteurization method for liquid foods. Further development is expected to fully commercialize this technology. Paper 23-1

Zhang will also describe how PEF processing research has been limited by the availability of equipment. Recent advancement in semiconductor switch technologies has made PEF equipment smaller, more reliable, and less costly. He will report on recent progress made in design, fabrication, and operation of PEF processing equipment. Paper 23-2

J. Raso-Pueyo, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain, will discuss fundamentals of microbial inactivation by PEF. Studies on microbial inactivation by PEF have shown its potential as a nonthermal pasteurization method for liquid foods. Critical factors involved in microbial killing by PEF are well known. However, kinetics of microbial inactivation by PEF are still unclear, and the underlying mechanisms of microbial inactivation have not been fully elucidated. Quantification of the influence of critical factors requires the development of mathematical models that describe the inactivation kinetics of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. These models are essential components of hazard analysis and critical control point systems, and very useful tools to equipment manufacturers and food processors to predict and control the safety and shelf life of foods at the design state. The author will discuss the modeling of kinetics of inactivation of different foodborne microorganisms under different experimental conditions. Paper 23-3

G.V. Barbosa-Cánovas, Washington State Univ., will discuss the effects of high-intensity PEF (HIPEF) on enzymes suspended in aqueous solutions and in real foods like fruit juices and milk. Depending on the particular enzyme, the media used for suspension, and the HIPEF treatment conditions, most enzymes are almost completely inactivated, while others show resistance to HIPEF processing. Electric field intensity, treatment time, number of pulses, pulse width, pulse waveform, field polarity, frequency, and treatment temperature are factors that can have significant effects on enzyme inactivation. Paper 23-4

H. Mastwijk, ATO BV, Netherlands, will discuss effect of PEF on various products. Fruit- and vegetable-based products were evaluated for suitability and consumer acceptability. In general, a high-acid product, such as orange juice and apple cider, is best suited for PEF pasteurization. Low-acid liquid foods, such as dairy products, will require refrigeration similar to those of thermally pasteurized products. Paper 23-5

D. Knorr, Berlin Univ. of Technology, will discuss how PEF can be applied to induce stress responses in biological systems as well as to reversibly or irreversibly permeabilize biological membranes. All three applications allow the development of new and unique processes to induce or increase the production of primary or secondary metabolites, to improve mass transfer of food constituents in and out of biological systems, and to reversibly or irreversibly affect the viability of biological systems. Furthermore, the process variables—including critical field strength, total energy input, pulse geometry and frequency, treatment chamber design, and the point of application—provide ample opportunities for process development. Paper 23-6

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• Carbon Dioxide Technology. A symposium on Monday afternoon will discuss use of dense-phase CO2.

C.E. Sizer, III, National Center for Food Safety & Technology, will review a broad spectrum of antimicrobial food uses of pressurized CO2, ranging from growth inhibition to complete sterilization. The combination of pressure and CO2 allows for the treatment of food products at temperatures significantly lower than what would be required for pure thermal treatments, resulting in superior product quality and extended shelf life. CO2 has several modes of action including reduction of pH, metabolism blocking, shifting of enzyme reaction kinetics, denaturation of enzymes, and disruption of lipid membranes. These combined effects make it possible to use relatively low pressures and temperatures to pasteurize or sterilize food products. Paper 50-1

M.O. Balaban, Univ. of Florida, will cover the development of a batch system to treat orange juice with dense-phase CO2 and present the results of enzyme inactivation, microbial reduction, and changes in quality attributes. A conceptual continuous system resulted from these efforts and was the beginning of optimization studies. Paper 50-2

K.L. Ho, Praxair, Inc, will describe a continuous system using dense-phase CO2 as the bactericidal agent for treating juice. Studies using single-strength orange juice inoculated with 6 logs or more of food borne pathogens were performed with the dense-phase CO2 processing system. Results showed that there were more than 5 log-reductions on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the CO2-treated juice. Paper 50-3

M. Sims, PoroCrit LLC, will discuss continuous cold pasteurization of aqueous foods using CO2. CO2 dissolved in water is a powerful antimicrobial agent. Microbes in continuously pumped aqueous food streams are killed when the carbonic acid concentration is momentarily raised by dissolving CO2 into the stream. System pressure of 75–150 bar is used to reach a dissolved CO2 content of 5–6%. The fastest killing rate is obtained at the saturation concentration of CO2 at a particular pressure and temperature. An inexpensive microporous polypropylene membrane contactor is used to carbonate the stream rapidly to saturation. Paper 50-4

J.H. Hotchkiss, Cornell Univ., will describe continuous pressurization of fluid milk with CO2 as a preservation strategy. Ultra-high-pressure (UHP)—400–1,000 MPa—processing of milk can be effective, with minimal impacts on flavor, visual characteristics, and nutritional value, but it may be prohibitively expensive for milk and many other products. Use of moderately pressurized (<50 MPa) CO2 continuous-flow “dense CO2” systems for fluid food product pasteurization has been found to provide benefits in processing fruit juices. It may potentially be applied to milk used for cheese making and bulk raw concentrated milk for export; it may be useful additionally as a technology to reduce spore populations in fluid milk prior to further processing such as UHT pasteurization or spray drying. Paper 50-5

N.R. Nayini, Praxair, Inc., will describe the dense-phase CO2 (DPCO2) process, a nonthermal alternative to thermal pasteurization. It retains freshly extracted sensory quality attributes and nutrients of juice while meeting the Food and Drug Administration’s juice HACCP requirements of a 5-log reduction of pertinent pathogens. The author will present preliminary results from the first commercial installation of the DPCO2 technology, which can continuously produce product at 40 gal/min. Paper 50-6

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• Weibull Distributions in Food Engineering. A symposium on Tuesday afternoon will address application of the Weibull distribution in safety assessment and shelf life determination.

M. Vandeven, Kraft Foods North America, will discuss fundamental aspects of the Weibull distribution. Parametric distributions are often used to model life time and time-to-failure responses. The Weibull distribution, a member of a special class of parametric distributions known as location-scale distributions, has found wide application in engineering and medical research. It is characterized by its shape and scale parameters. By changing the shape parameter, the Weibull distribution can be made to have many different shapes, from highly skewed like an exponential distribution to nearly bell-shaped like a normal distribution. The hazard function, an important characteristic of a life time distribution, indicates the instantaneous failure rate of surviving units. The Weibull distribution is unique in that its hazard function can model increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rates. The practical importance of the Weibull distribution stems from its ability to model life time phenomena with many different commonly occurring shapes and hazard rates. Paper 78-1

O.H. Campanella, Purdue Univ., will discuss predicting microbial inactivation in non-isothermal heat processing and chemical treatments with dissipating agents. Several investigators have challenged the assumption of first-order kinetics and proposed a variety of alternative nonlinear models. One is based on the assumption that the microbial resistances can have a Weibull distribution. Irrespective of the modeling approach, the parameters used in the calculation have been determined from sets of experimental survival curves determined under conditions which are as close as possible to isothermal. To achieve this goal, the samples are treated in very narrow tubes, a procedure that excludes viscous media or liquids with suspended particles, forcing the user to rely on survival data in a surrogate broth. This problem would be eliminated if the survival parameters could be obtained from non-isothermal inactivation data determined in the actual food. Similar considerations apply to chemical treatments,where maintaining a constant agent concentration is very difficult or impossible. It will be shown that it is possible to estimate microbial survival parameters from non-isothermal and changing concentration data when the Weibull distribution assumption holds. Paper 78-2

M. Peleg, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, will discuss use of distribution functions in the interpretation of microbial dose-response and survival curves. If at a given level of exposure to a lethal agent a single microorganism is either alive or dead, then its dose-response curve, or survival curve, has a step shape. The same applies to a spore, in which case we assume that it is either viable or inactivated.The organism’s resistance to an agent, be it heat, radiation, a chemical, etc., can be expressed as the agent’s dose level needed for its inactivation within a given time or the time needed for its inactivation at a given dose level. In a large microbial population, there is a spectrum of resistances to the introduced agent. Therefore, a dose-response or survival curve has a shape that reflects the cumulative form of the resistances’ distribution. The Weibull distribution function is a convenient model of many dose-response and survival curves, but other functions, notably the logistic function and in some cases mixed distribution functions, are more appropriate. Paper 78-3

I.S. Saguy, Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, will discuss use of distribution functions in the analysis of rehydration of food particulates. He will explain how optimal reconstitution properties can be achieved through control of the drying process and adjustment of the rehydration conditions. Knowledge of the water uptake mechanism is necessary for the interpretation of rehydration data and mathematical modeling of the process kinetics, using the fundamentals of transport phenomena, especially diffusion, convection, and relaxation. Some of these are based on statistical probabilities and hence the application of distribution functions in the models. The Weibull distribution function, which has found many applications in biological systems, can also be useful in the description of the rehydration process, which is perceived as a sequence of probabilistic events, with two characteristic parameters, scale and shape. Paper 78-4

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D. Knorr, Berlin Univ. of Technology, will discuss use of distribution functions in nonthermal processing. He will describe how for nonthermal preservation technologies it is essential to quantify the fluctuations in the critical organism’s number or physiological state in response to habitat alteration. The dynamics of both growth and inactivation are expressed in terms of logarithmic cell concentrations. It was postulated in 1919 that the logarithmic reduction of microorganisms, subjected to chemicals and heat treatments, is proportional to the exposure time. This implies that the decrease in the number of survivors is proportional to the momentary number of survivors. Difficulties arise from the fact that the exact molecular target, whose hit results in the cell’s death, is difficult to identify. The same applies to nonthermal treatments, where multiple targets are involved. Thus, a general inactivation model should account for the organism’s dynamic response to the external stress based on the relevant reaction pathways. There is growing evidence that the frequency of mortality in treated microbial populations need not depend on the actual number of survivors but on the treatment time only. Paper 78-5

T.P. Labuza, Univ. of Minnesota, will discuss accelerated shelf life testing, using the Weibull Hazard method. The shelf life of a food is the period it will retain an acceptable level of eating quality from an organoleptic point of view. It depends on four main factors, namely formulation, processing, packaging, and distribution logistics management. Shelf life in distribution is dependent on packaging and environmental conditions. In most real life situations, time limitations in research and development funding and the pressure of time preclude companies from conducting real-time shelf life testing. To answer the critical questions of “What is the shelf life of the food?” and “How should we date it?” food scientists responsible for product development resort to educated guesses and prior experience or run limited experiments under abuse conditions and try to extrapolate the obtained limited data to the projected shelf life. The Weibull method allows one to base the endpoint on ”the percentage of consumers a company is willing to displease.” Paper 78-6

• Other Programs and Papers. Session 19 on Sunday afternoon is on citrus and other fruit processing waste by-products and their utilization and includes papers on recovering valuable materials such as food colors, phytochemicals, oils, aromas and fiber. Session 24 on Sunday afternoon will cover the state of postharvest preservation technologies in developing countries and will include papers reporting on conditions in every region of the world. Session 49 on Monday afternoon will address computer-aided engineering to enhance food product, process, and equipment design and will include papers on computational fluid dynamics, flow modeling, simulation, and computational electromagnetics.

Several poster sessions will be sponsored by the Food Engineering Division. On Sunday afternoon, session 29C will include 22 papers on rheology and texture, session 29D will include 29 papers on thermal processes, and session 29E will include 31 papers on transport processes and kinetics. On Tuesday afternoon, session 92B will include 63 papers on food process engineering.

There will also be poster and oral sessions on nonthermal processing, sponsored by the Nonthermal Processing Division, including session 74 on Tuesday morning with 8 papers, session 92C on Tuesday afternoon with 38 papers, and session 103 on Wednesday morning with8 papers focusing on PEF and other nonthermal processes.

The New Products and Technologies Session 44 on Monday morning includes 12 papers with a more commercial orientation than most of the other technical papers. There are somewhat fewer papers in this category than in some past years. Is less innovation occurring, or are firms just reluctant to describe their developments?

Finally, the Food Engineering Division is sponsoring two other sessions of interest: session 58 on Monday afternoon on transport processes and kinetics, with 12 papers on such topics as crystallization of fats, drainage of whey, and drying, and session 72 on Tuesday morning, with 10 papers on food process engineering, on such topics as freezing, atomization, and wastewater treatment.

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Of course, there are also numerous exhibits related to processing. Here are brief descriptions based on information received as of press time:
• Color Measurement. HunterLab will exhibit portable and benchtop color measurement systems for the food industry. These systems are ideal for measuring raw materials through final product, including liquids such as sauces and juices, solids such as spices and meats, and nonuniform products such as cereals and snack foods. These systems are used for quality control and for food research applications. HunterLab, 11491 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston VA 20190, (phone 703-471-6870), Booth 722

• Snack Food Manufacturing Equipment. American Extrusion International offers a wide range of snack food manufacturing equipment, from low- to high-capacity extruders and all auxiliary equipment, including conveyors, bucket elevators, dryers, fryers, flavoring systems, etc. Coextrusion systems for creating filled products and sheeting systems for the production of tortilla chips and fabricated potato chips will be exhibited. The new Chip Cutter compresses extruded potato, corn, rice or multi-grains into sheets, then cuts them into triangles, octagons, squares, diamonds, and other shapes. This new technology is a much less expensive way of producing tortilla and fabricated potato chips. The Rotary Fryer is a self-contained pellet-frying system which fries a wide range of buoyant food products with varying cook times. Very low oil volume in fryer means quick oil turnover for fresher products which taste better and last longer on store shelves. The rotary frying system has the option of a Vertical Coil Heat Exchanger to suit fuel source requirements. American Extrusion International, 498 Prairie Hill Rd., South Beloit, IL 61080, (phone 815-624-6616, www.americanextrusion.com), Booth 5104

• Product Inspection. Dipix Inspection Systems offers the CS24/IL inspection system, with more features, versatility, and payback than ever before. It inspects 100% of product across a 24-in belt, up to 25 products/sec. Each individual product is consistently analyzed for 2D and 3D size, shape, and color. The machine provides instantaneous feedback, automated reporting, and individual product rejection. In addition, the automated 3D/2D/Bake Color inspection system improves manufacturing stability and captures real-time, accurate, and continuous data from food production lines. Dipix now Dipix Technologies Inc., 1051 Baxter Rd., Ottawa ON K2C 3P2, Canada, (phone 613-596-4942, www.dipix.com), Booth 415

• Water Activity Measurement. Rotronic, manufacturer of high-quality, precision water activity, humidity, dew point, and temperature measuring equipment, presents an updated line of water activity instrumentation. Using advanced digital signal processing circuitry, the HygroClip based instruments bring an unparalleled level of flexibility to water activity measurement. The new instrumentation includes a handheld portable solution, a PC-based solution, and a standalone instrument for the measurement of water activity. All instruments use the Rotronic sensor for unparalleled accuracy and reliability. Rotronic Instrument Corp., 160 E. Main St., Huntington, NY 11743, (phone 631-427-3898, www.rotronicusa.com), Booth 1866.

• Transport Temperature Logger. The new ebro™ EBI 6 transport temperature logger from Dresser Instruments provides a quick, dependable indication of quality for temperature-dependant shipments. There’s no need to download data to determine if transport temperature is within acceptable levels—a quick glance at the LED display gives you all of the information you need to make an accurate decision. Steady flashing indicates logging within programmed limits (pass), and a double flash indicates exceeding limits (fail). A time delay can be programmed during setup to buffer less-critical temperature fluctuations that occur during the normal transportation of goods. The new logger allows measurements from –25 to +40° C and is accurate to ±0.8° C with a resolution of 0.1° C via an internal platinum-type 1000 temperature sensor. It has a memory capacity of 4,000 measurements. The user can choose standard, preselected measuring rates or can freely program from 10 sec to 24 hr with a start/stop function. The user-friendly QuickLOG software provides a graphic or tabular representation of time and temperature, including over-temperature and delay limits. Ebro/Dresser, 250 East Main, Stratford, CT 06614, (phone 203-385-0624, www.dresser.com), Booth 5934

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• Cleaning and Separating Equipment. Carver Inc. has developed a variety of unique and highly efficient cleaning and separating equipment, including the Gump line of screeners. Gump designs and manufactures several types of screeners and separators, including vibratory, rotary atmospheric, and pneumatic in-line screeners, also known as pressure sifters. Carver also manufactures a complete line of cleaning and separating equipment, including a complete line of eccentric and oscillating shakers. The combined capacity of Carver and Gump provide the ability to handle a broad range of separation applications. Carver, Inc., One Lummus Dr., Savannah GA 31422 (phone 912-447-9000, fax 912-447-9295, www.carver-inc.com), Booth 5105

• Innovative Encrusting and Forming Equipment. Texmac Inc. is the sole distributor of Kobird encrusting and forming equipment for making encrusted bread, meat, confectionery, and other kinds of food products. Versatile filling machines, including coextrusion, depositing, and sheeting, create unique and profitable food products. Texmac, Inc., 3001 Stafford Dr., Charlotte NC 28208, (phone 704-394-0314); Kobird Co., Ltd.36 Fujiwashizuka, Harue-Cho Sakai-Gun, Fukui 919-0411(phone +0776-51-5100), Booth 1001

• Materials Processing Equipment. Microfluidics Div. of MFIC Corp. will display highly sophisticated and cost-effective materials processing equipment for biotechnology, food, chemical, coating, and adhesive/sealant applications. Microfluidics, 30 Ossipee Rd., Newton MA 02464, (phone 617-969-5452, www.microfluidicscorp.com), Booth 2078

Ozone Systems. Novazone supplies automatically controlled ozone systems for washing flumes, spray-wash conveyors, and cold-storage facilities for control of bacteria, molds, ethylene, and shelf-life extension. The Ozone Room Control Monitor (RCM-OZ) is a technologically advanced microcomputer ozone gas analyzer and programmable controller. The cost-effective allows the user to control, monitor, and data log information critical for gaseous ozone treatment with agricultural commodities. Ozone has proven to be extremely effective in repressing postharvest mold growth and improving product quality. The Hyperconcentrator is a fully integrated compact ozone contacting system designed to maximize the transfer of gaseous ozone into water. Equipped with a proprietary degassing process, the system removes unwanted air from its contact tank, delivering a stream of pressurized ozonated water that is bubble free. Novazone, 335 Lindbergh, Livermore, CA 94551, (phone 925-454-0303, www.novazone.net), Booth 3770

• Lubricants and Greases. Shell Lubricants is expanding its line of industrial products in the U.S. to include a proven line of fluids and greases for the food and beverage industry. Shell Cassida® products are applicable for a full range of food industry machinery, including hydraulics, gearboxes, bearings, vacuum pumps, and compressors. The synthetic fluids and greases provide important performance benefits, including extended oil service life, reduced downtime, increased productivity, and protection from corrosion and wear of metal surfaces. The products are made at an ISO-certified plant in Switzerland and have a proven track record for safety and reliability. Ability to stand up to extremes in temperature, compatibility with machinery parts, and simplified changeovers make the products a proven H-1 food grade lubricant.Shell Lubricants, 700 Milam, Houston TX 77002, (phone 713-546-6477), Booth 1167

• Coating Equipment. Vector Co. manufactures equipment for the application of flavors, glazes, sugars, and film coatings to food, candy, and cereal, as well as fluid bed processors for encapsulating, agglomerating, coating, and drying of powders and particles. A laboratory test facility is available for customer product testing and equipment evaluation. The MFL.01 benchtop fluid bed system is specifically designed for processing minute quantities (20–250 g) of materials. The 40- to 500-mL processing volume is the smallest-capacity fluid bed on the market. Interchangeable processing partitions provide the flexibility for processing various batch sizes. Vector Co., 675 44th St., Marion IA 52302, (phone 319-377-8263, www.vectorcorporation.com), Booth 3170

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• Miniature UHT/HTST Units. In a major upgrade to one of its most popular products Armfield has added a host of new features to its FT74X range of miniature-scale UHT/HTST units designed to allow developers to process very small quantities of product in a short time. Two-stage cooling has been added to the plate and tubular heat exchangers with which the units can be configured. It enables lower product outlet temperatures to be reached when used in conjunction with the Armfield FT63 laboratory chiller and is particularly useful where cold product storage is required. Static mixer elements for the tubular exchanger now improve heat transfer in both heating and cooling tubes, reducing problems of burn-on with difficult products and allowing lower outlet temperatures to be achieved. Both the plate and tubular heat exchangers now enable monitoring of product pre-heat temperature. The plate heat exchanger may be fitted with a homogenizer plate either upstream or downstream of the heating section, enabling product to be directed to a homogenizer and returned during the heat-treatment process. The plate heat exchanger may also be fitted with additional plates in the heating section to deal with more-demanding products. A variable holding tube enables the user to configure a wide range of holding times to suit product processing parameters. A magnetic flowmeter enables very accurate measurement of product flow rate. The feed pump is capable of variable-speed operation in both high and low flow modes for clean-in-place operations and pasteurization at high flow and normal processing flow rates. The range of miniature equipment includes scraped surface, direct steam injection and microwave heat exchanger systems, carbonator fillers, spray dryers, and chillers and edible oils processing systems. The company will also be showing the FT25 range of miniature-scale scraped surface heat exchangers, the FT74DI direct steam injection UHT/HTST unit, the FT102 Carbo Fill carbonator/filler/capper, and the FT80 spray dryer/chiller. Armfield Ltd., Bridge House, West St., Ringwood, Hampshire BH24 1DY, U.K. (phone +44-1425-478781, fax +44-1425-470916), Booth 948

• Feed System for Sticky Fruits. ARBO Engineering, the North American arm of ARBO Systems of Switzerland, manufactures all types of feeders, gravimetric and volumetric, with emphasis on vibratory tray feeders. These feeders are most suitable for friable food products, feeding them gently, without any damage. A culmination of years of research in feeding raisins and similar fruits, a new feeder forsticky fruits combines a Quadro Comil as a deagglomeration and refill device for the vibratory tray feeder. Several units are already working in a major breakfast cereal company. ARBO Engineering Inc., 3 Whitehorse Rd. Unit 5, Toronto ON M3J 3G8, Canada, (phone 416-636-7057, www.arbo-feeders.com), Booth 409

• Environment Monitoring. Biotest Diagnostics Co. offers the Hycon System line of environmental monitoring products, including airborne particle counters, microbial air samplers, agar strips, and Hycon Contact Slides for use in a wide range of contamination control applications. Three RCS Centrifugal air samplers are avaialble to meet microbial contamination control needs: the Standard RCS, the RCS Plus, and the RCS High Flow. The Contact Slides are used to enumerate microorganisms on surfaces, including equipment, floors, ventilation shafts, and personnel. A flexible culture media carrierensures contact with curved or irregular surfaces. Self-contained packaging reduces risk of contamination, facilitates storage, and provides for safe transportation and incubation of the product. Biotest Diagnostics Corp., 66 Ford Rd. Ste. 131, Denville NJ 07834, (phone 973-625-1300), Booth 1982

• Twin-Screw Extrusion. Clextral designs, manufactures, and supplies complete production lines based on the unique Evolum twin-screw extrusion technology to make direct-expanded snacks (puffed), coextruded snacks (filled biscuits), third-generation snack pellets, and flat bread. Its affiliate Afrem supplies turnkey systems for the production of pasta and couscous, and Lymac provides packaging equipment (bag-in-box, vertical cartoner, etc.). The Clextral Group provides food processing systems and worldwide services from operations in the U.S., Chile, France, Singapore, and China. Pilot plants are installed in both France and the U.S. Clextral Inc., 14450 Carlson Cir., Tampa FL 33626, (phone 813-854-4434, www.clextralgroup.com), Booth 617

• Equipment Development. Foster-Miller, Inc., provides product, process, and manufacturing development services. The company’s staff of more than 200 engineers and scientists take custom food equipment projects from concept development through design, build, debug, installation, and integration, working closely with customers at every stage of a project to assure customer ownership in the solution. Products and equipment (including proprietary rights and patents), developed with customer funds are assigned to the customer. Foster-Miller, 195 Bear Hill Rd., Waltham MA 02451, (phone 781-684-4172, www.foster-miller.com), Booth 334

• Refractometer. Maselli Measurements offers the Model LR-01 Laboratory Refractometer in a stainless-steel housing for use in both the laboratory and process areas. Combining high accuracy with ease of use, it features a new “Confidence Feature”—its ability to detect the shadow line of the liquid. The refractometer has many successful applications, including orange juice and tomato paste production. The company also offers the Model UR-20 process refractometer, covering a range of accuracies and performances. Maselli Measurements, Inc., 7746 Lorraine Ave. Ste. 201, Stockton CA 95210-4234, (phone 209-474-9178, www.maselli.com), Booth 614

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• Liquid Heating Systems. Pick Heaters is exhibiting its 3A Sanitary Heaters for in-line product cooking of any water-miscible liquid. Even bite-sized pieces are not affected by the non-shearing action. The compact sanitary system uses direct steam injection cooking and can be used in laboratory and pilot-plant operations. These engineered turnkey systems generally utilize the company’s smallest heater, rated for up to 150 lb of steam/hr and liquid flows as low as 1/2 gal/min. The pilot-scale heater heats, cooks, or sterilizes most slurry-type food products on a continuous, straight-through basis, replacing slow batch processing, right in the laboratory. Pick Heaters, Inc., 730 S. Indiana Avenue, West Bend WI 53095, (phone 800-233-9030), Booth 1970

• Flooring and Protective Coatings. Polymerica, Inc. offers MasterShield Construction Polymers, used in high-performance corrosion control flooring and protective coatings and linings for primary and secondary containment. Polymerica, Inc., 609 Fertilla St., Carrollton GA 30117, (phone 904-743-2331, www.polymerica.com), Booth 5953

• On-Line NIR Sensors. Process Sensors Co. provides on-line NIR sensors for the continuous measurement of moisture, oil, and coatings. The MCT-300 is used routinely to measure the amount of seasoning applied to snack foods in a continuous manner, as well as other powder bulk and food products. Process Sensors Corp., 113 Cedar St. S5, Milford, MA 01757, (phone 508-473-9901, www.process sensors.com), Booth 408

• Food Processing Supplies. Remco Products provides color-coded products for the food processing industry, including polypropylene shovels, tubs, scoops, mixing paddle scrapers, utility forks, and the Vikan hygiene system® line of brushes and squeegees. The company has expanded its Total Color Brush Line to include ten additional brushes. With block and bristle made from the same color, these color-coded brushes provide maximum traceability for today’s stringent HACCP environments. The new polypropylene Hygienic Fork and Rake from Vikan provide an innovative alternative to stainless steel. They are lightweight and sturdy, making them ideal for a variety of applications in the food processing industry. Manufactured with FDA and USDA approved materials, they are also chemical and corrosion resistant. Remco Products, 4735 W. 106th St., Zionsville IN 46077 (phone 317-876-9856, www.remcoproducts.com), Booth 3276

• Extraction, Pasteurization, and Infusion Equipment. Goodnature Products Inc. designs and manufactures juice-extraction equipment, multipurpose pasteurizers, calf milk pasteurizers, infusers, and dewatering equipment. Capabilities also include complete juice factories with setup and turnkey plants. The company is introducing the Cold Infusion process for dried fruit processing, baking, and ice cream ingredients. The patented design maintains the fruit integrity by using a low temperature, preventing breakdown of the fruit by retaining 100% of the original fruit pectin. The process also yields a pure juice by-product. Goodnature Products, Inc. 149 Bud Hill Dr., Buffalo, NY 14206 (phone 800-875-3381, fax 716-855-3328, www.goodnature.com), Booth 120

• High-Shear Mixing. Silverson Machines provides high-shear mixing equipment for emulsifying, homogenizing, dissolving, dispersing, disintegrating, and hydrating solids into liquids. These sanitary mixers rapidly create uniform emulsions and incorporate difficult-to-wet-out powders into a lump-free, uniform solution. The mixers range from laboratory size through full production size with 3A sanitary design. Silverson Machines Ltd., P.O. Box 589, E. Longmeadow, MA 01028 (phone 413-525-4825, fax 413-525-5804, www.Silverson.com), Booth 748

• Extrusion Systems. Wenger Manufacturing manufactures state-of-the-art commercial extrusion cooking systems ranging in size from small laboratory and research applications to large production applications. In addition to 14 sizes of twin-screw and single-screw extruders, such systems typically include continuous drying and toasting ovens, mixers, blenders, automated control systems and enrobing equipment. Wenger Manufacturing, Inc., 714 Main St., Sabetha, KS 66534 (phone 785-284-2133, fax 785-284-3861), Booth 505

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• Waterproof Scales. A&D Weighing will exhibit its new SK-WP line of waterproof scales, which meet the National Sanitary Foundation’s standards for hygienic design. This new scale line is perfect for applications in food processing, foodservice, portion control, or any other situation that requires a sanitary, washdown scale. The stainless-steel scale is dust- and waterproof to IP-65 and displays weight in either metric units or decimal pounds. The battery-operated, rugged units can be operated any place where power is limited or portability is needed. A&D Weighing, 1555 McCandless Dr., Milpitas, CA 95035 (phone 408-263-5333, fax 408-263-0119, www.andweighing.com), Booth 5517

• Evaporation Equipment. Artisan Industries is exhibiting its new Powder Rototherm® Evaporator/Dryer and Evaporator/Stripper™. The evaporator/dryer (shown in photo) is an alternative to spray drying and freeze drying. The spinning rotor creates a highly agitated thin film which enables drying of heatsensitive, foaming, and fouling products under vacuum. The evaporator/stripper is a multi-staged falling-film device for desolventizing, stripping, and deodorizing heat-sensitive, foaming, and solids-containing products in a single pass. It has no moving parts, yet is capable of stripping aroma compounds directly from a slurry, and it readily handles heat-sensitive products because of the short residence time and high surface-to-volume ratio. Typical applications include recovery of flavor/aroma compounds from fruit and vegetable juices, removing offflavors from dairy proteins, removing alcohol from alcoholic beverages, and stripping of solvent from essential oils, herbs, and plant extracts. Both types of equipment are available as fully accessorized cart-mounted systems suitable for R&D and pilot-plant work. Artisan Industries, Inc., 73 Pond St., Waltham , MA 02451 (phone 781-893-6800, fax 781-647-0143, www.artisanind.com), Booth 5755

• Electron-Beam Irradiation. ScanTech Sciences, LLC, will provide information about its STS-10/20 Cold Pasteurization Systems, modular e-beam units designed for on-site or off-site installation to perform the safe irradiation of food products of all types, including fruits and vegetables, meats and poultry, seafood, dairy products, and spices. Irradiation extends the shelf life of the foods but does not perceptibly change their taste or texture. It can be used as a replacement technology for methyl bromine and ethylene oxide fumigation to treat food products for pest infestation, and can reduce the need for preservatives and extend shelf life. The systems are designed to be incorporated within existing food production facilities and to provide precise USDA dose requirements for a variety of products. The system can accommodate loose fruits and vegetables, flats of vine products, and boxes and bags of nuts, spices, flour, and other seasonings and ingredients. ScanTech Sciences LLC, 430 10th St., N.W., Suite N-205, Atlanta, GA 30318 (phone 404-526-6220, fax 404-526-6221, www.scantechsciences.com), Booth 4664

• Extraction Equipment. Littleford Day, Inc. is featuring food processing equipment, including mixers, ribbon blenders, sterilizers, extractors, granulators, agglomerators, vacuum dryers, high-speed liquid dispersers, reactors, and pressure cookers. The company’s Ploughshare® technology offers a highly efficient and economical means of extracting superior-quality extracts, extracting and recovering residual solvent in a single vessel. The company has drawn upon its process technology and advanced Ploughshare mixing action to develop a vastly superior system to manufacture icings and frostings. Pilot-plant and laboratory equipment are available, and the company maintains a completely equipped test center to assist customers in process development and scaleup. Littleford Day Inc., 7451 Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042 (phone 859-525-7600, fax 859-525-1446, www.littleford.com), Booth 4422

• High-Pressure Processing System. Avure Technologies Inc.’s Fresher Under Pressure® system unleashes the immense power of high-pressure processing, using water pressure to make foods safer, better tasting, and longer lasting. Pressure inactivates foodborne pathogens such as Listeria, Salmonella, Vibrio, and Escherichia coli and is an effective post-packaging intervention step. Because it destroys spoilage organisms as well as foodborne pathogens, products can enjoy an significantly longer shelf life, resulting in a more-efficient distribution system with reduced spoilage rates. Unlike potentially damaging heat treatments or chemical additives, HPP helps preserve more of the natural taste, color, texture, and nutritional value of foods. The company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Flow International Corp., will exhibit a variety of retail products that benefit from this technology, including ready-to-eat meats and poultry, ready-to-eat meals, shellfish, seafood, beverages, wet salads, fruits and vegetables. Avure Technologies Inc., 23500 64th Ave. S., Kent, WA 98032 (phone 253-850-3500 or 800-610-1798, fax 253-813-3285, www.avure.com), Booth 4128

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• Freeze-Drying Equipment. Atlas is exhibiting a new series of small batch freeze dryers, the RAY 8-17-30-45, and 50, with sublimation capacities of 100–1,000 kg/day. The company has also expanded the RAY 75,100, and 125 freeze dryers with continuous de-icing to include a RAY 150, with sublimation capacity of up to 7,000 kg/day. The pilot-plant dryer, the RAY 1, provides safe scale-up and production of market samples. All pilot plants are offered with a PC/PLC system allowing remote control and long-distance troubleshooting. Atlas, 9165 Rumsey Rd., Columbia, MD 21045 (phone 410-997-8700, fax 410-997-5021, www.niroinc.com/html/chemical/freezedryers.html), Booth 2961

• Benchtop Process Equipment. Bottom Line Technologies, Inc., is offering a line of benchtop process equipment for laboratory product development and ingredient applications. The line includes batch atmospheric and vacuum cookers, a swept-surface continuous cooker, a hotfill beverage system that includes a bottle-filling station, and a new development-scale planetary mixer with variable-speed agitation and temperature-controlled processing. All equipment can be offered with data collection capability. The company will also be introducing a data-collection system that can be offered with any of the benchtop process equipment. The company also designs and fabricates custom equipment. Bottom Line Technlogies, Inc., 100 Brown St., Suite 1, Lawrenceburg, IN 47025 (phone 812-537-7082, fax 812-537-7082, www.blt-inc.com), Booth 5407

• Extrusion Equipment. Buhler Inc. will exhibit its extrusion equipment for manufacturing ready-to-eat cereals, pet food, ingredients, aquafeed, and snacks. The focus is twin-screw cooking and forming, fluid-bed drying, size reduction, and mixing. Other equipment processes include pasta, chocolate, and grain products. Buhler Inc., P.O. Box 9497, Minneapolis MN 55440-9497 (phone 763-847-9900, fax 763-847-9911, www.buhlergroup.com), Booth 2565

• Cooker Extruder. Coperion Corp., formed through a merger of industry leaders, Werner & Pfleiderer, Buss, and Waeschle, will exhibit its ZSK 25 Mega Cooker Extruder for continuous processing of a variety of foods, including snacks, cereal, gum, licorice, starches, and pet foods. Also highlighed will be a revolutionary new Waeschle rotary valve for powders, along with a newly designed slide gate valve in stainless-steel construction for manual and pneumatic operation. Coperion Corp., 663 E. Crescent Ave., Ramsey NJ 07446 (phone 201-825-6412, fax 201-825-6491, www.coperion.com), Booth 3728

• Dataloggers. Ellab manufactures both wireless and real-time dataloggers for precision measurement of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The equipment is designed and appropriate for a variety of validation applications, including retorts, conveyorized ovens, tunnels, spiral freezers, warehousesm and stability chambers. The company also manufactures a variety of custom temperature probes and fixtures for package monitoring. The Tracksense Pro Mini Logger, half the size of a Pro logger, is designed for use where thermal mass and size are critical. It is ideal for food processing applications. Ellab, 6355 Ward Rd., Arvada CO 80004 (phone 303-425-3370, fax 303-425-3384, www.ellab.com), Booth 330

• High-Pressure Processing Systems. Elmhurst Research, Inc. will exhibit its high-pressure food processing systems with a “Tilt-Vessel” design that offers higher throughput than conventional designs. They come in internal volumes of the pressurized region of 25 and 100 L. The 25-L production systems allow the user to review the previous day’s or week production parameters such as hold time and pressure settings. Elmhurst Research, 60 Loudonville Rd., Albany NY 12204 (phone 800-545-5521x227, fax 518-462-0415, www.elmhurstresearch.com), Booth 5552

• Aroma Recovery Systems. Flavourtech will its Spinning Cone Column aroma recovery systems for a wide range of food and beverage applications. The Spinning Cone Column is the world’s most cost-effective method of capturing natural flavors at high speed and low cost, and without thermal damage. For tea and coffee, a radical new Integrated Extraction System has been added for the creation of intensely aromatized concentrated liquid extracts. Soluble instant coffee, and tea and coffee extracts as a base for ready-to-drink products, along with fruit essences, extracts, and concentrates (particularly of tropical fruit), can all now benefit from the recovery of aroma volatiles which previously were lost. Flavourtech Americas, Inc., 1450 Airport Blvd., Santa Rosa CA 95403 (phone 707-577-7810, fax 707-577-7511, www.flavourtech.com), Booth 4326

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• Evaporator Performance Analysis. GEA Evaporation Technologies supplies evaporation, distillation, rectification, and crystallization process technology and systems and offers advanced analysis of dairy evaporator’s hydraulic performance during clean-in-place operations. CIP process times can be reduced without the addition of circulation pumps, valve manifolds, large tanks and other equipment requiring a substantial initial investment and repeating maintenance costs. The analysis employs CIP program details, including spray device on/off/delay times, system flow rates, and evaporation rates. The analysis results have been validated against actual evaporation system performances. GEA Evaporation Technologies, 9165 Rumsey Rd., Columbia MD 21045 (phone 410-992-7400, fax 410-992-7426, www.evaptec.com), Booth 2961

• Membrane Filtration. GEA Filtration custom-designs membrane filtration systems that best utilize the technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, or reverse osmosis for each customer’s specific application in the dairy, food and beverage, fermentation, and biotechnology industries, as well as for wastewater applications. The company will highlight its new ceramic membrane microfiltration plant model T, which is ideal for bacteria and spore removal from skim milk and whey, or for protein fractionation in skim milk and fat removal from whey. GEA Filtration, 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson WI 54016 (phone 715-386-9371, fax 715-386-9376, www.geafiltration.com), Booth 2961

• Fluid-Handling Systems. Graco, Inc. will display its Husky™ Sanitary Series line of FDA-compliant, air-operated, double-diaphragm pumps, which feature reliable, externally serviceable air valves. The company is also announcing that A.R. Arena Products will be the sole distributor in North America for the Graco BES 300 system, designed for the Arena 330 Shipper™. Graco, Inc., 88 11th Ave. NE, Minneapolis MN 55413 (phone 612-623-6000, fax 612-623-6940, www.graco.com), Booth 1726

• Screeners and Separators. Gump will exhibit its line of vibratory, rotary atmospheric, and pneumatic in-line screeners and separators. Pneumatic in-line screeners, also know as pressure sifters, were invented by Gump in 1972, and feature a patented air bypass system.A division of Carver, Inc., Gump manufactures a complete line of high-quality, efficient screening and separating equipment for a wide range of industries and applications. Gump, One Lummus Dr., Savannah GA 31422 (phone 912-447-9000, fax 912-447-9295, www.gumponline.com), Booth 5105

• Dryers and Evaporators. MCD Technologies, Inc. will exhibit its Refractance Window® dryers and evaporators that use water to gently and rapidly dry or evaporate delicate products. Independent testing has confirmed that Refractance Window drying is extremely energy efficient and that it maintains the highest levels of color, flavor, aroma, and actives in foods, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. It is ideal for low-temperature concentration of delicate products. The company also offers contract drying and evaporating, as well as product testing. MCD Technologies, Inc., 2515 S. Tacoma Way, Tacoma WA 98409 (phone 253-476-0968, fax 253-476-0974, www.mcdtechnologiesinc.com), Booth 5115

• Miniature UHT/HTST Processor. MicroThermics, Inc., which specializes in laboratory processing equipment that simulates production processes, will introduce its new Direct/Indirect UHT/HTST Processor. With this processor, researchers can process products ranging from juices to milk to cheese sauces using indirect heat exchangers or direct steam injection—all in one machine. It can also be connected to an extensive array of options such as data acquisition systems, inline homogenization, etc. The company will also describe its Miniature Plant Trial Services with steam injection, tubular or plate heating, focused microwave heating, in-line homogenization, ultra-clean filling, and more. MicroThermics, Inc., 3216-B Wellington Ct., Raleigh NC 27615 (phone 919-878-8045, fax 919-878-8032, www.microthermics.com), Booth 3548

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• Impingement Roaster. National Drying Machinery Co. will exhibit its patent-pending ultra-sanitary, high-efficiency roaster that it designed and distributes for roasting vegetables. Manufactured by Apollo Sheet Metal, the roaster comes complete with high-velocity, precision engineered nozzles. National Drying Machinery Co. also manufactures turnkey thermal processing systems, including dehydrators, dryers, roasters, blanchers, and associated equipment, as well as single-stage, multi-stage, and multi-tier conveyor systems with gas, steam, or electric heat. Products processed in the dryers include potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers, apples, cranberries, cereal, pasta, rice, and soup mixes. National Drying Machinery Co., 2190 Horning Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19116-4296 (phone 509-586-1104, fax 509-586-3771), Booth 4519

• Wastewater Treatment. NewBio, Inc. will describe its innovative approach for the pretreatment of high-strength waste-water generated by the food and beverage industry. The company manufactures combines its patented anaerobic biological reactor with a high level of process automation and on-line process management. The technology has been applied to wastewater from the potato processing, beverage, meat processing, prepared foods, salad dressing, dairy, and candy industries. A new mobile pilot plant is also available. NewBio, Inc., P.O. Box 771, Hopkins, MN 55343 (phone 952-476-6194, fax 952-476-8622, www.newbio.com), Booth 809

• Laboratory Spray Dryer. Niro Inc. will describe its Mobile Minor™ Spray Dryer, which features a raisable roof for easy cleaning, feed rates as low as 0.5 L/hr, evaporation rates to 7 kg/hr, 75-kW electric air heater, and air-driven rotary atomization. The unit is 3 ft × 6 ft × 6 ft high and is mounted on wheels for mobility. It is also now available in a closed-cycle configuration for use with organic solvents, as well as a pharmaceutical version. A new Integrated Filter Dryer version will be available by the end of September 2003. The company also offers engineering, systems, and processing equipment for drying, granulation, agglomeration, evaporation, filtration, homogenization, powder packaging and handling, and tableting. Niro Inc., 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson, WI 54016 (phone 715-386-9371, fax 715-386-9376, www.niroinc.com), Booth 2961

• Pumps and Homogenizers. Niro Soavi will describe its equipment and technology for liquid/fluid processes, as well as spray drying and powder treatment. The company is announcing that it has expanded its rental program to include the NS 3075H unit—a dairy and beverage unit that can handle volumes to up 2,500 g/hr at 3,000 psi—as an addition to the nine existing laboratory, pilot, and production units/skid-mounted systems. The systems are based on the Energy Series of high-pressure pumps and homogenizers that are rigid, durable, and stable for continuous operation under the toughest conditions. Every machine is factory tested at full design parameters before released under the ISO 9001 Program. Niro Soavi, 1600 O’Keefe Rd., Hudson, WI 54016 (phone 715-377-0534, fax 715-386-9376, www.nirosoavi.com), Booth 2961

• Dough Coating System. Spray Dynamics, Ltd. will exhibit its Continuous Batch Rotor System, a fully automated dough coating system that uses a driven rotor located in the main coating chamber. Peanuts are gently dropped from a PLC-controlled scale into the main coating chamber as the rotor begins to rotate. This rotation carries the peanuts out to the chamber wall by centrifugal force. Solution is introduced through a peristaltic onto a high-speed liquid applicator located in the middle of the main coating chamber. Powders are delivered through a Uni-spense® Dry Ingredient Distributor and mixed into the peanuts with baffles located on the main chamber wall. For most formulas, a batch can be coated in 3 min or less. The company also offers other equipment for uniform coating of snacks, cereals, baked goods, pastas, pet foods, vegetables, and other products. Spray Dynamics, Ltd., 108 Bolte Ln., Saint Clair, MO 63077 (phone 636-629-7366, fax 636-629-7455, www.spraydynamics.com), Booth 3479

• Ultraviolet Light Systems. Steril-Aire, Inc. provides ultraviolet light (UVC) products for use in controlling microorganisms such as mold, bacteria, and virus. The devices can be used in air-conditioning equipment, over production lines, in cold storage rooms, and other places where the microorganisms exist. They can improve product yield, reduce maintenance, and help reduce energy consumption. The company is introducing a “Sleeved” emitter designed for the food industry. It protects against accidental breakage and the release of quartz fragments into production lines. Steril-Aire, Inc., 11100 E. Artesia Blvd., Suite D, Cerritos, CA 90703 (phone 562-467-8484, fax 562-467-8481), Booth 601

• Dryers. Wolverine Proctor & Schwartz offers a complete line of energy-efficient equipment including the Jetzone fluidized bed dryers, Proctor continuous conveyor dryers, roasters, toasters, coolers and impingement ovens for the processing of fruits, ready-to-eat breakfast foods, vegetables (dehydrated and roasted), nuts, bakery, potatoes, rice, snack foods, pasta, meat, poultry, and others. Also offered is batch drying equipment, including tray, truck, and laboratory dryers. The company has fully equipped technical centers for demonstration purposes and development of new products and processes. Wolverine Proctor & Schwartz, Inc., 251 Gibraltar Rd., Horsham, PA 19044 (phone 215-443-5200, fax 215-443-5206, www.wolverineproctor.com), Booth 3065.

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Don’t forget to attend the IUFoST 12th World Congress July 16–20, 2003, in Chicago, Illinois
For more than four decades, the International Union of Food Science and Technology has fostered the international cooperation and exchange of knowledge among food scientists, food technologists, and other specialists.

IUFoST continues this activity with the presentation of its 12th World Congress of Food Science and Technology, Feeding the World—Opportunities Without Boundaries, which will be held immediately following the Institute of Food Technologists’ 2003 Annual Meeting & Food Expo®.

The World Congress is being hosted by IFT, and we encourage everyone who will be attending the IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo on July 12–16 to stay a few days extra to take advantage of the wealth of knowledge being presented during the World Congress, and encourage those who were planning to attend only the World Congress to come a few days earlier and take advantage of the wealth of knowledge being presented during the IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo. IFT has extended an offer to Congress delegates to attend the IFT Food Expo on July 15 and 16 at no extra charge.

This year’s Congress will consist of plenary lectures and related discussions, symposia, round table discussions, poster sessions, and more.

For more information on the program and how to register, visit the Congress Web site at www.WorldFoodScience.org/worldcongress.

Editor’s note: See the July issue of Food Technology for additional coverage of Food Expo exhibitors whose information arrived too late for inclusion in this issue.

Contributing Editor
Consultant to the Process Industries
Oak Park, Ill.

In This Article

  1. Food Processing & Packaging