J. Peter Clark

Solid foods such as spices, herbs, and teas can be contaminated with bacteria, molds, and insects because they are agricultural products and are often grown and harvested under dusty conditions in developing parts of the world. To avoid transmission of plant pests and potential contamination of foods and mixtures in which the materials are used, they are often treated to reduce the microbial load and to kill insects, eggs, and larvae.

Another instance in which solids may require thermal treatment…

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