Diets trends come and go as people continue to work to lose weight and maintain ideal weight throughout their lives. Buzzwords in weight management today include satiety, lean protein, low carb, and fat burning. Here are some of the ingredients that address these areas.
• Dairy protein. “Diets high in protein, and specifically dairy protein, have a satiating effect,” said Carrie Schroeder, Key Account Manager, Nutrition, Fonterra North America, Rosemont, Ill. (www.fonterra.com). “Eating higher levels of protein and lower levels of carbs helps you feel full, and you find yourself snacking less,” she explained. “In a pilot study that Fonterra conducted, females who supplemented their diet with 20 g of additional protein at both breakfast and lunch over a three-week period lost 2 inches from their waist. Muscle is an active tissue, and as you feed your body with protein, and your muscles continue to develop, you are contributing to keeping your metabolism active and ultimately managing weight.” Fonterra offers whey protein concentrates and isolates, as well as other dairy ingredients.
Bendtsen et al. (2013) examined whether casein, whey, and other protein sources exert different metabolic effects and targets to clarify the underlying mechanisms (beyond their metabolic effects). Casein and whey differ in absorption and digestion rates, with casein being a “slow” protein and whey being a “fast” protein. In addition, they differ in amino acid composition. Data indicated that whey is more satiating in the short term, whereas casein is more satiating in the long term, and that amino acid composition, rate of absorption, and protein/food texture may be important factors for protein-stimulated metabolic effects.
• Rice protein. Joy et al. (2013) indicated that both whey and rice protein isolate administration post resistance exercise improved indices of body composition and exercise performance; however, there were no differences between the two groups. The researchers were looking to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses.
Oryzatein™ rice protein from Axiom Foods, Los Angeles, Calif. (www.axiomfoods.com), was used in the study. It is enzymatically extracted from multiple layers of the whole grain, is not hydrolyzed, and does not contain monosodium glutamate.
• Dietary fiber. A study presented at the 2013 American Society for Nutrition Experimental Biology conference demonstrated fiber’s ability to maintain satiety after a meal (Tate & Lyle, 2013). Using a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, researchers from Iowa State University found that an emerging fiber, soluble fiber dextrin, may help promote satiety from 3 to 8.5 hours after consumption. Tate & Lyle’s soluble fiber dextrin is a resistant dextrin that can be isolated from tapioca or corn.
Clinical research has documented a positive effect on total daily energy intake when Litesse® Ultra™ polydextrose from DuPont Nutrition & Health, Terre Haute, Ind. (www.dupont.com), is consumed in a mid-morning snack (DuPont, 2013). Subjects consumed chocolate milk drinks with an equal energy load and varying doses of polydextrose (from 0 g to 25 g) 90 minutes prior to being served an unlimited pasta-based test meal. Total meal energy intake was significantly lower when the subjects had received 6.3 g, 12.5 g, or 25 g of Litesse Ultra in the pre-meal snack, compared to the no-polydextrose control. Consumption of 25 g of polydextrose led to the lowest meal energy intake, indicating that the impact on satiety is dose-dependent.
• Raisins. Patel et al. (2013) showed that ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner compared to consumption of potato chips and cookies in children 8–11 years old. On four separate weekdays one week apart, children were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until “comfortably full.” Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after snack consumption. Children consumed the least amount of calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies; however, the weight of raisins consumed was similar to potato chips (about 75 g) and lower compared to grapes and cookies. Consuming raisins and grapes led to lower cumulative food intake (breakfast + morning snack + lunch + after-school snack), while consuming cookies increased cumulative food intake compared to the other snacks.
• Almonds. Tan and Mattes (2013) provided evidence that daily consumption of 1.5 ounces of almonds as a snack or with a meal suppressed hunger and helped study subjects meet the recommended dietary intake of vitamin E without affecting body weight. This was a 4-week randomized, parallel-arm study that entailed consuming almonds (43 g/day) with breakfast or lunch or alone as a morning or afternoon snack, or consuming no almonds. Consuming almonds as a snack reduced hunger and the desire to eat during the acute-feeding session. Without specific guidance, daily energy intake was reduced to compensate for energy from the provided almonds.