Microbial food cultures include bacterial food cultures, fungi, and yeast. The scope of this article is bacterial food cultures, which can be subdivided into "starter cultures" and "probiotics." Starter cultures are those traditionally used by the fermented food industry. Probiotics refer to "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host" (FAO/WHO Joint Working Group, 2002).Lactic acid–producing bacteria present in yogurt may be viewed as a natural component of the product

The presence of living organisms in traditional fermented foods is …

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