The FEMA GRAS Program has operated to assess the safety of flavor ingredients for their intended use in human food for more than 60 years. The GRAS provision of the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defines a food additive as: “… any substance … which … may … [become] a component or… [affect] the characteristics of any food … if such substance is not generally recognized,…

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About the Author

Ivonne M. C. M. Rietjens, PhD, FEMA Expert Panel Chair, is Full Professor in Toxicology at the Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Samuel M. Cohen, MD, PhD, is Havlik-Wall Professor of Oncology in the Dept. of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and the Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center.

Gerhard Eisenbrand, PhD, is retired Professor from the University of Kaiserslautern, Dept. of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Germany.

Shoji Fukushima, MD, PhD, is Research Advisor of the Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan.

Nigel J. Gooderham, PhD, Vice-Chair of the FEMA Expert Panel, is Emeritus Professor of Molecular Toxicology in the Dept. of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction and the Former Assistant Provost of Imperial College London, England.

F. Peter Guengerich, PhD, is Professor and Tadashi Inagami Chair in Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

Stephen S. Hecht, PhD, is the Wallin Land Grant Professor of Cancer Prevention, Masonic Cancer Center, and Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota.

Thomas J. Rosol, DVM, PhD, MBA, is Professor of Veterinary and Toxicological Pathology in the Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, The Ohio State University.

Jeanne M. Davidsen, PhD, is with FEMA.

Christie L. Harman, MPH, is the Senior Science and Policy Advisor to the FEMA Expert Panel.

Danarubini Ramanan is with FEMA.

Sean V. Taylor, PhD, is the Scientific Secretary to the FEMA Expert Panel.