Non Preservation Process

Size Modification processes: Reduction or growth in the size of a food product or a sub-component (e.g., fat homogenization in milk), to enable ease of use or prevent product degradation overtime.

Food Process


Food Use Examples

Used at Home



Cutting, Chopping

Modifying the size, shape, or surface of a food product for ease of use or for further processing

Fruits and vegetables, cheese, meat, and grains


Makes it easy to consume (e.g., apples cut into smaller pieces) or process a food (e.g., chopped potatoes prior to mashing)

Potential loss of some beneficial components like vitamins; reduces shelf-life due to exposure of large surface area to air and microorganisms

Homogenization, Emulsification

Reducing the size of particles in a liquid (e.g., fat in milk) by passing the liquid through an orifice or moving rotor via shear to break the particles into smaller size

Milk, cream, and other dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings, sauces, dips, and ketchup


Stabilizes fats and oils in food products that contain water to enhance smoothness; prevents separation of water and fat/oil; can change appearance of the food (e.g., milk looks whiter); can disrupt microorganisms in a liquid food


Milling, Grinding

Removing husk or outer surface of a food material, usually grains, to enable further size reduction, including grinding into flour

Grains (wheat, corn, rice, oats, and barley) beans, sugar, and coffee


Reduces the cooking time for whole grains; flour from grains can be used for various baked products such as breads, cakes, sauces, etc.

None, all nutrients retained unless further processing is done


Removing the surface/upper layer of a food product

Vegetables and fruits (e.g., carrots, potatoes)


Easy to use in food preparation or for processing; removes undesired attributes (e.g., soil) present on the surface of the food

Some nutrient loss is possible; changes color and/or flavor due to oxidation


Reducing the particle size of a mixture of pliable components (e.g., chocolate) to a consistent size

Chocolate and fudge


Enhances smoothness of chocolate products



Flattening a mixture of pliable components to a specific thickness and to reduce the particle size

Grain based doughs used for pie crust, cookies, etc.


Shapes a dough to a consistent size to enable further processing (e.g., baking cookies)



Cutting a food to create pieces of much greater length than width or diameter

Cheese, vegetables (e.g., lettuce, carrots), and fruits


Easy to consume or use in preparing food (e.g., shredded carrots or cheese on a salad)

Minor nutrient loss possible; reduces shelf-life due to exposure of large surface area to air and microorganisms


Cutting a food to obtain a consistent dimension (e.g., width of potato chips) for consumption or for further processing

Vegetables, fruits, meat, cheese, and potatoes


Creates consistency for baking, cooking, or frying of foods; easy to consume (e.g., sliced carrots or apples)

Potential loss of nutrients; reduces shelf-life due to exposure of large surface area to air and microorganisms