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During this period, it was unfortunate that the health value of fat was largely ignored, especially its role in the development of children and young people–a fact which still can easily be overlooked when shadowed by the obesity problem that this country faces.
Today, there are signs that ingredients are putting the fat back into foods. There are several reasons for this. The obvious one is that fat provides such attributes as flavor and texture—qualities which many carbohydrate-based fat replacers could never quite achieve. But there are also other significant reasons. As the fat replacement craze was gradually replaced or incorporated into an even larger trend—nutraceuticals and functional foods—fats and oils were redesigned with the emphasis on health. Pairing “healthy” and “fat” was no longer a contradiction or marketing misnomer, and today we’re seeing a whole variety of exciting developments in the area of healthy fats and oils.
And let’s not forget that in addition to adding functionality and nutraceutical value to food products, many of these healthy fats and oils perform as fat substitutes. By putting some of these new fats into foods, you are replacing some of the fat already present, making possible a variety of healthier foods. Furthermore, in low-fat formulations, some of these fats are working in combination with other ingredients such as starches and gums to achieve their end. The use of these new ingredients as fat substitutes is very important because of the obesity problem that continues to need addressing.
In the September issue, the ingredients section looked at 10 reasons why soy is entering the mainstream. In a similar spirit, this article will examine some of the recent ingredient developments that I think illustrate how fat is being restored into today’s foods.
1. Designing fats with added nutritional benefits. Fats with added health benefits are being developed by researchers at the University of Georgia’s College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Athens, Ga. Known as structured lipids, the low-calorie oils can reportedly help boost the immune system, lower cholesterol, and improve brain development.
According to lead researcher Casimir Akoh, the oils are created by exchanging properties of one fatty acid for those of another. Enzymes are used to blend long-chain fatty acids with short- or medium-chain fatty acids. The long-chain ones provide nutritional qualities, while the short- and medium-chain ones metabolize faster and provide quick energy.
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Akoh noted that these fats are especially designed for people with specific health problems such as cystic fibrosis or AIDS. In laboratory tests with mice, a structured lipid created from medium- and long-chain fatty acids from fish oil was shown to reduce cholesterol by 49% and boost the immune system by increasing thymus cells 19%. (The thymus, a ductless gland composed mainly of lymphoid cells, plays a part in the body’s immune system.) Boosting the immune system could be of benefit to AIDS patients who have low T-cell counts.
End products made with the new fats are said to retain the physical properties of high-calorie, fat-containing foods. Potential applications include salad dressings, beverages, infant formulas, and medical intravenous solutions.
Products using the ingredient have not yet been commercialized.
2. Developing improved lipids. A variety of property-enhanced oilseeds have been developed in recent years. From these oilseeds are derived oils that offer improved functionality, nutrition, and oxidative stability over traditional versions.
One example of an improved product is a mid-oleic sunflower oil developed by geneticists from the USDA Agriculture Research Service and promoted under the name NuSun by The National Sunflower Association, Bismarck, N.D. The oil is produced from a hybrid sunflower which was created using conventional breeding techniques. It is said to have a saturated fat level of less than 10%, linoleic levels ranging from 20–30%, and oleic levels as high as 50 to 70%. The oil does not require hydrogenation and is well suited to commercial deep-fat-frying applications.
In July 2000, Procter & Gamble began using the oil for production of its Pringles potato chips.
A soybean oil with reportedly half the linolenic acid found in commercial varieties has been developed by researchers at USDA-ARS, Raleigh, N.C. Called Soyola, the oil is produced from soybeans grown using conventional breeding methods and does not require hydrogenation. The product, which is suitable for frying and salad oil markets, represents the first product introduction from the United Soybean Board’s 1998 Better Bean Initiative and was recently released to growers in the southern U.S.
A new low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil derived from Brassica juncea may be used in margarines, shortenings, and as a salad and frying oil. It contains five principal fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) and has an erucic acid content of approximately 0.2%.
This oil is reportedly produced by the same extraction and refining processes that are used to produce low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil derived from Brassica napus or Brassica campestris—products that have GRAS status (21 CFR 184.1555) and are known as canola oil.
The Canola Council of Canada has submitted to the Food and Drug Administration its determination that low-erucic-acid rapeseed oil derived from Brassica juncea is GRAS, and on January 27, 2000, the agency responded that it has no questions regarding this determination. The oil can therefore be marketed as “canola oil” and will become a new addition to the different types of fats and oils that can be used in food products.
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3. Replacing fat with a starch-lipid composite. A starch-oil composite prepared by jet-cooking technology may be used as a fat replacer in meat products. The ingredient, which incorporates oil, water, and starch in a starch:lipid ratio varying from 10:1 to 2:1 was developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Station, Peoria, Ill., under the name Fantesk™.
The technology used produces a lubricous fluid gel where oil droplets in the range of 1 to 10 micrometers are randomly suspended in the cooked starch dispersion. Each oil droplet is encapsulated by a starch shell that prevents the droplets from coalescing. The encapsulation of fats and lipid-like materials by the starch allows the reduction of fat content in food products and controlled release of flavors and oils. The ingredient can enhance flavor, texture, and mouthfeel attributes of the application.
4. New developments in milkfat. The California Dairy Research Foundation conducted several research projects in the area of milkfat. These projects developed new value-added milkfat products, applications, and technologies; improved manufacturing properties; and identified and demonstrated novel and positive nutritional and health benefits.
For example, researchers at the University of California at Davis have found that whey protein gels, when incorporating selected fractions of fractionated milkfat in the gel, can exhibit a broad array of different rheological properties. Results of the study can significantly enhance capabilities in meeting desired texture profiles of whey-protein-based gels and in developing new rheological profiles of such gels, and provide the means to develop new applications for both fractionated milkfat and fractionated whey proteins.
Other projects included milkfat as a nutritional delivery system for fat-soluble nutrients; modification of milkfat composition by nutritional and genetic strategies; and modification of cream functionality by a novel adsorption process.
U.S. patent 6,096,352, issued August 1, 2000 to M. Kijowski et al., assigned to Kraft Foods, Inc., Northfield, Ill., describes a method for utilizing frozen concentrated milkfat to manufacture cream cheese products which have the appearance, taste, consistency, and texture of cream cheese made with a conventional cream-containing cream cheese mix.
Concentrated milkfat, which, if properly prepared, can be frozen and stored for at least 12 mo before use in cream cheese manufacture. However, the concentrated milkfat should be melted and thoroughly mixed with, and in the correct ratio to, the milk and/or cream to form a cream cheese mix of appropriate composition. Poor mixing or incorrect composition will lead to defects in the finished product. If the concentrated milkfat is melted and held at an elevated temperature for any extended period of time, the fat may begin to oxidize and the finished product will have a rancid off-flavor or limited storage stability.
According to the patent, the frozen concentrated milkfat (a dairy-based composition which is at least 70% milkfat by weight) should be mixed uniformly with and melted in a dairy fluid such as milk or cream. The blending process may be a continuous or batch, but it is important that it be carried out under the time and temperature conditions which preserve the quality of milkfat.
A process for the reduction of free fatty acids and cholesterol from liquid animal fats, particularly anhydrous milkfat, is the focus of U.S. patent 6,129,945, issued October 10, 2000. Particularly addressed is the problem of selectively removing the FFA from anhydrous milkfat without precipitating the lipid materials or damaging the fine volatile flavor components of anhydrous milkfat.
The process uses a dilute solution of alkali metal base to form a salt of the FFA and then an alkali metal salt to precipitate the FFA from the animal fat. A beta cyclodextrin is used to remove cholesterol. Liquid vegetable fats are used in blends with the processed animal fat to produce a spreadable mixture for table use. The processed animal fat can be reconstituted to whole milk with the FFA and cholesterol removed for various commercial uses.
The October issue of Food Technology (page 46) discussed research looking at the influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and soy oil supplements in cattle rations on the CLA and fatty-acid composition of yogurt. Researchers at Iowa State University found that the supplementation of CLA and soy oil into the diets of cows can alter the nutritional quality of dairy products through the increase in CLA content and decrease in saturated fatty acid content.
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5. Significance of omega-3s in product development. Studies have shown that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids provide several health benefits, such as acting as an important building block in all cells, sustaining normal blood pressure and promoting normal blood clotting, reinforcing the immune system, and helping to prevent illnesses characterized by the breakdown of brain and eye cell structure. Although omega-3s are an essential nutrient, the body cannot produce adequate amounts so it must be obtained from the diet.
Fish oils and shellfish contain significant quantities of omega-3s, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Another good source of omega-3s is flax seed oil which may be useful in a variety of skin disorders, digestive problems, and inflammatory diseases.
Researchers at OmegaTech, Inc., Boulder, Col., developed a fermentation technology for the production of DHA in whole-cell algal biomass. This includes isolating strains of algae that met its objectives, cultivating, harvesting, and processing DHA-rich algae. Various food categories can be enriched with the oil (40% DHA) that is extracted from the algae.
At the 2000 IFT Annual Meeting, tuna burgers fortified with omega-3s available from Roche Vitamins, Inc., Parsippany, N.J., were introduced. Containing 1,000 mg of omega-3s, the frozen seafood product is manufactured by Aquacuisine, Inc., Boise, Idaho and is promoted as a quick and easy meal that is high in protein and low in saturated fat, and contains a nutrient that may contribute to heart health.
In recent years, omega-3s have been successfully incorporated in a variety of prototype products including frozen desserts, muffins, breads, sauces, margarine, pasta, cheese spreads, yogurts, and salad dressings.
New ingredient developments are helping to expand applications for omega-3 containing fish oils. For example, a free-flowing powdered ingredient available from Roche is especially suitable for use in dry mixes and can stand up to heating and freezing processes. Called Ropufa 10n-3, the deodorized fish oil is encapsulated to protect the oil from oxidation and it reportedly contains 8– 9% omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Potential applications include dry mixes for beverages, baked goods, and hot cereals and other breakfast foods. The ingredient may also be used to fortify such products as low-fat yogurt, breads, sauces, crackers, and seasonings.
Also, studies have shown that long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AHA) play an important role in the growth of infants, influencing the development of the brain and retina. Consequently, there is an interest to develop oils that are high in these substances which may be used as an ingredient in infant formula. Examples of such products include a DHA-rich single-cell oil (termed DHASCO) and an AHA-rich single-cell oil (termed ARASCO). GRAS status for these two ingredients are currently pending.
Work is currently being done to get federal guidelines for omega-3 consumption established in the U.S. and it is expected that a health claim for omega-3 may come in the near future. (Right before this article went to press, FDA, in fact, announced that it is allowing a qualified health claim regarding omega 3s in dietary supplements. See sidebar for this breaking story.)
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6. Oat oil adds softness to bread. According to researchers at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Research Service (ARS), oat oil may be used as a suitable—and possibly healthier—alternative to vegetable oils in bread dough.
Rich in polar lipids (phospholipids and glycolipids), the oil can be combined with water to lubricate bread dough, which helps it rise evenly and bake into a loaf that is uniformly soft and springy, even after several days of storage. Researchers at North Dakota State University, Fargo, N.D., compared bread formulations made with either 3% crude oat oil or the same amount of vegetable shortening, and in each case, loaf volume, appearance, and resistance to staleness proved the same. It was also found that the same result could be achieved by replacing the vegetable shortening with 0.5% polar lipids taken from the oat oil.
Breads made with oat oil also offer consumers an alternative to those made with vegetable shortenings which may contain trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids have been associated with heart disease.
Presently, the most highly valued major component of oats is the bran. Oat oil comprises about 6% of most dehulled oats but is rarely sold as a commercial product. Consequently, the new research could potentially lead to a new market for oats.
7. Using fat in culinary preparations. Combining culinary expertise with food science in the area of product development has gained the spotlight in recent years. With such an emphasis, it should not be too surprising that fat as an ingredient has played an important part in creating dishes that have authentic flavor profiles representing particular regions of the world.
Most recently, International Dehydrated Foods, Inc., Springfield, Mo., a manufacturer of chicken fat ingredients, has created a collection of food preparation ideas for research and development personnel. The guide, “Culinary Creations,” provides innovative recipes incorporating chicken-based ingredients available from IDF. One such ingredient, IDF rendered chicken fat, is shelf stable, extracted from chicken meat with low heat and essentially all the moisture removed.
8. Reducing cholesterol. A number of studies have looked at the ability of phytosterols—plant-derived oil compounds—to reduce serum cholesterol. Products having the highest phytosterol levels include rice bran oil, corn oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, olive oil, and peanut oil.
Tall-oil phytosterols, developed by Novartis Consumer Health, Inc., Summit, N.J., can be used as a nutrient in vegetable oil spread to reduce the absorption of cholesterol. The ingredient, which level of usage should not exceed 12% in the finished product, is a mixture of four phytosterols—sitosterol, sitostanol, campesterol, and campestanol. The phytosterols are extracted from a by-product of the pulping process used for coniferous trees. The manufacturer has submitted to the Food and Drug Administration its determination that tall-oil phytosterols are GRAS, and on April 24, 2000, the agency responded that it has no questions.
Another plant-derived oil compound, tocotrienols, have been found to be an effective cholesterol-reducing agent—with the richest sources of tocotrienols being palm oil, rice bran oil, and barley. For example, Tocosol™ 5% is a tocotrienol emulsion derived from palm oil that is said to have biological activities that are not shown by conventional tocopherol vitamin E. Tocotrienols may have the ability to reverse blockage in arteries, reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, inhibit an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol in the liver, and inhibit human breast cancer cells. According to the manufacturer, Carotech, Inc., the stable, water-dispersible ingredient is 40–60 times more potent than normal vitamin E.
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9. Creating medium-chain triglycerides. Medium-chain triglycerides, marketed under the name Neobee® by Stepan Co., Food Ingredients Div., Maywood, N.J., are rapidly metabolized specialty fats that are low in viscosity, highly stable, and impart no color, flavor, or odor when added to food formulations. The naturally derived oils can be effectively used in low-calorie foods, nutritional supplements, or nutritionally beneficial meal replacements.
The versatile ingredients can be used as flavor carriers, release agents, clouding agents, coatings, or moisture barriers. Low set points, comparable to traditional fats, ensure a smooth manufacturing process. Unlike traditional fats, MCTs are trans fatty acid free. Depending on application, they are available as a liquid, solid, or powder to accommodate different production needs.
In nutrition or energy bars, for example, MCTs can prevent unsightly fat crystallization and sticky surfaces in contact with outer packaging.
An interesterifying process for making low-calorie triglycerides having long and short fatty acid chains is dislosed in U.S. patent 6,124,486, issued September 26, 2000 to D.E. Cherwin et al., assigned to Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, Tenn. Although the process employs temperatures of up to 260°C for the interesterification reaction, low-calorie triglycerides produced do not exhibit the undesirable properties of previous interesterified triglycerides produced at relatively high temperatures.
The ingredient can be incorporated either alone or in combination with another fat or fat substitute into various food compositions.
10. New marketing developments in fats and oils. A long-term supply agreement has been reached between Archer Daniels Midland Company and the HUMKO Oil Products Div. of ACH Food Companies, Inc. ADM will become the primary supplier of HUMKO’s refined oils, including soybean, corn, and other vegetable oils. Paul Mulhollen, Senior Vice President of ADM, described the agreement as “an ideal fit for our crushing and refining strengths at ADM by partnering with one of the premium value added companies in the oil and shortening business.”
Karlshamns, the Sweden-based vegetable specialty fats producer is establishing a business area for edible oils. The new business area—the result of a recently concluded strategic review of the group’s operations, will cover activities in Sweden, Holland, and the United Kingdom where the group has production facilities.
“The decision by the European Union to allow the use of up to 5% vegetable fat in chocolate will most likely be followed by similar legislation in other countries,” said Johan Sandberg, marketing manager of the new Edible Oils Business Area.
Filling fat—called Akomic 2000—has been developed by Karlshamns for use in fat-based confectionery fillings, such as nougat praline. Products made with the ingredient are said to have high gloss and bloom stability. Furthermore, studies have shown that the shelf life of pralines with fillings based on the ingredient is considerably longer than that of pralines with fillings based on standard filling fats.
The filling fat can withstand high contents of other fats in the filling such as nut oil and milk fat, without impairing the appearance and eating qualities of the products. However, the addition of other fats to the filling will affect the hardness and other sensory properties. Used as the only fat in the filling, the ingredient gives a fairly hard and firm filling with excellent melt-off characteristics. If the filling is also based on a high amount of nuts, the result is a much softer filling, but with an appealing mouthfeel. It is also suitable for aerated/whipped applications, allowing a good overrun and mouthfeel. The filling fat is neutral in taste. It is convenient to work with as it crystallizes quickly.
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The future is likely to see a variety of other developments in the area of fats and oils.
Because of the proposed labeling of trans fatty acids, ingredients are being developed that can help create foods that are low trans fat or trans fat free. For example, a series of low-trans liquid shortenings has been introduced by AC Humko Corp., Memphis, Tenn. Called Nutri-lipid NT, the line consists of three liquid, pourable shortenings made with a blend of high-oleic sunflower oil, emulsifiers, and other components. The trans fatty acid content of the shortenings is reportedly less than 2%, allowing food manufacturers to make zero trans claims and remove the word “hydrogenated” from their ingredient statement.
Also, on the labeling front, a health claim for omega-3s (see sidebar) will also help spark the development of new applications using fish oils and the creation of new ingredients.
The development of innovative oils from such products as rice, soy, and barley will help lead to new markets, as well as possibly attract interest in less familiar oils. Furthermore, components of oils, such as phytosterols and tocotrienols, may also play an important role in the formulation of future nutraceuticals.
FDA allows qualified health claim for omega 3s in dietary supplements
The Food and Drug Administration has allowed a qualified health claim about EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids in dietary supplements and reduced risk of coronary heart disease. The claim is being allowed even though the agency had determined that it did not meet the “significant scientific agreement” standard that had been previously established for such claims.
The qualified claim states: “The scientific evidence about whether omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease is suggestive, but not conclusive. Studies in the general population have looked at diets containing fish and it is not known whether diets or omega-3 fatty acids in fish may have a possible effect on a reduced risk of CHD. It is not known what effect omega-3 fatty acids may or may not have on risk of CHD in the population.”
Such a claim may be used in labeling for EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acid-containing dietary supplements, provided that such supplements do not recommend or suggest in the labeling, or under ordinary conditions of use, daily intakes exceeding 2 grams EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids.
FDA’s decision is reflected in a letter dated and issued October 31, 2000, which outlines modifications that the agency has made in its approach in processing this claim and future health claims for dietary supplements. Under this approach, FDA intends to exercise enforcement discretion for a qualified health claim for dietary supplements when certain conditions are met.
These conditions include: (1) the health claim petition meets FDA requirements for such petitions; (2) the scientific evidence supporting the claim outweighs the scientific evidence against the claim, the claim is appropriately qualified, and all statements in the claim are consistent with the weight of the scientific evidence; (3) consumer health and safety are not threatened; and (4) the claim meets the general requirements for a health claim.
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Products & Literature
ENCAPSULATED SAVORY FLAVORS—called MagnaCap®—provide enhanced flavors to a variety of bread products while ensuring flavor retention throughout the baking process. The flavors are suitable for pizza crust and wraps as well as for flavored breads. The flavor line includes Mediterranean Spice Blend, a combination of olive oil, oregano, garlic, peppers, and other herb flavors; Green Chili; Italian Herbs; Smoked Chicken; Sesame; and Thai Spice. When the internal temperature of the baked good reaches the melt point of the chosen microcapsule shell, the product is released, giving a full flavor burst and allowing for greater flavor retention in the finished food. For more information, write to Ottens Flavors, 7800 Holstein Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19153 (phone 215-365-7800)—or circle 300.
NATURAL WATERMELON FLAVOR has application in beverages, cordials, and confections. Called Natural Watermelon Flavor WONF, the product is said to duplicate the flavor profile of the natural food, eliminating the green and rind notes. It is available in dry, water-soluble, and oil-soluble versions. For more information, write to McCormick Flavors, McCormick & Co., Inc., Hunt Valley, MD 21031 (phone 410-771-7525)—or circle 301.
DEHYDRATED TERIYAKI SAUCE may be used in dry mixes for marinades and rubs, jerky and other meat products, and snack coatings. The golden tan powder is made from naturally brewed Kikkoman Soy Sauce and includes maltodextrin as a carrier and silicon dioxide as an anticaking agent. It reconstitutes easily in a ratio of 1 part teriyaki to 1 1/2 parts water, for use in any application calling for teriyaki sauce. For more information, write to Kikkoman International Inc., Industrial Dept., P.O. Box 429784, San Francisco, CA 94142-0784 (phone 415-956-7750)—or circle 302.
SUGARLESS HARD CANDY may be formulated with a gum powder called Prehydrated® Gum Arabic FT. In this application, low viscosity levels facilitate the conveying and processing of the end product. Also, the ingredient is soluble up to 50% and forms a soft gel at this level, making it suitable for gummy candies as well. For more information, write to TIC Gums, Inc., P.O. Box 369, Belcamp, MD 21017 (phone 410-273-7300; fax 410-273-6459)—or circle 303.
ENZYMES AND EMULSIFIERS, part of a new family called PowerBake, are said to provide excellent dough strengthening properties, gluten reduction, and an alternative to bromate. In addition, the new generation of ingredients minimize the risk of sticky dough and can be added to either the sponge or dough. The two ingredients (9903 and 808) are available in convenient, easy to use forms. For more information, write to Danisco Cultor USA, Inc., P.O. Box 26, New Century, KS 66031 (phone 800-255-6837; fax 913-764-5407)—or circle 304.
FRUIT FLAVORINGS are said to imbue still and carbonated juice products, hard candies, and other food items with the freshness of natural fruits. Called Fresh Flavors, the products can be customized or combined with other fruit WONF flavors. Independent taste testing has shown that when the flavor is added to a carbonated 60% juice product, the beverage then tastes as if it actually has a higher level of carbonation. Panelists also described the flavor-enhanced beverages as having a lighter, more refreshing taste than the control group of beverages. For more information, write to David Michael & Co., Inc., 10801 Decatur Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19154 (phone 215-632-3100; fax 215-637-3920)—or circle 305.
NATURAL CALCIUM CONCENTRATE called BioLactaCal is extracted from milk. In addition to being an excellent calcium source, the spray-dried powder is soluble in acidic pH range, has a bland flavor, and is free flowing. It may be used in nutritional supplements; diet, sports, and isotonic beverages; nutritional bars; and calcium-enriched dairy products. For more information, write to Kelatron Corp., 1675 W. 2750 South, Ogden, Utah 84401 (phone 80-394-4558; fax 801-394-4559)—or circle 306.
EDIBLE PRINTING INKS can be used to decorate confections of all kinds including hard panned candies, gum, chocolate, lollipops, compressed candy, soft gels, and gummies, as well as baked goods such as cakes and cookies. The water-based systems, available in an extensive selection of ink colors, are formulated to give sharp clear designs, such as monograms, brand names, logos, and fanciful decorations. For more information, write to Colorcon, 415 Moyer Blvd., West Point, PA 19486 (phone 215-661-2671; fax 215-661-2271)—or circle 307.
FROZEN DESSERT FLAVORS are available for 2001. Marshmallow Crispie Treat flavored ice cream is a smooth, rich creamy vanilla with buttery notes laced with a sweet marshmallow variegate. Ginger Snap Cookie flavored ice cream has a ginger cookie profile coupled with the warm, sweet taste of molasses. For more information, write to Virginia Dare, 882 Third Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11232 (phone 718-788-1776; fax 718-768-3978)—or circle 308.
TEA FLAVOR —called TeaZe™—is said to offer unsurpassed aroma and flavor and can eliminate problems such as instability and loss of flavor and aroma top notes. The product can also allow control of the polyphenols that can cause haze and the formation of precipitates, as well as caffeine content. Dissolving in water to give a clear colorless solution, it can create enhanced flavor profiles for existing tea-flavored products such as instant tea and ready-to-drink teas, as well as open new opportunities for the tea flavoring of foods and beverages. Zylepsis Ltd. is currently engaged in the development of a manufacturing process for the ingredient and is negotiating its commercialization. The company also plans to use the proprietary method to develop other flavors such as beer. For more information, write to Zylepsis Ltd., 6 Highpoint, Henwood Business Estate, Ashford Kent, TN24 8DH, United Kingdom (phone 44-0-1233-660555; fax 44-0-1233-660777)—or circle 309.
by DONALD E. PSZCZOLA