Donald Pszczola

Donald E. Pszczola

An antioxidant can be defined as a substance which prevents the reaction of various food constituents with oxygen. This protective effect is desirable because many foods become discolored or spoiled when oxidation takes place. A variety of synthetic antioxidants are available, as well as natural ones, including vitamins C and E, and the bioflavonoids.

Antioxidants can be derived from a variety of sources, including fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, tea extracts, and honey. Although they play an important role in preserving food quality, ongoing studies are still looking at their potential health benefits.Derived from a wide range of sources, antioxidants play a major role in “preserving” food quality. Although what an antioxidant does is not exactly new, the ways their benefits have been promoted and subsequently reported on have certainly changed over the years—moving from an emphasis on their functionality to one that includes health and the potential prevention of certain diseases.

For example, in 1986, a Food Technology Special Report written by Judie Dziezak focused on how antioxidants provide an effective means of retarding certain unwanted effects caused by oxidation. Such effects may lead to the development of rancid off-flavors and aromas, loss of product flavor or odor, textural changes, discoloration, and nutritional losses.

This report described a variety of compounds exhibiting some form of antioxidant capacity, including free-radical terminators (butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, propyl gallate, and tocopherol mixtures) and reducing agents (ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, and the sulfites). No particular antioxidant is a magic bullet for all food products, however, and selection of these antioxidants is based on a number of factors.

Ten years later, a Food Technology Special Report written by James Giese noted the presence of such natural antioxidants as spices and herbs, wood smoke, and rice bran oil, and emphasized the continuing search for other alternatives to traditional antioxidants. Although his article still focused on the functionality of antioxidants, he also discussed their potential health benefits and the claims that were being made at that time.

Since then, there has been an increasing amount of attention placed on the potential health benefits of ingredients having antioxidant capability. Antioxidants are believe to counteract cell damage caused by excess oxygen or the activity of free radicals (unstable oxygen molecules formed in the body when cells use oxygen to produce energy and which may be accelerated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, pollution, smoking, and other environmental and biological stress factors). If high levels of free radicals remain active in the body, they can break down cell membranes and damage cell DNA. Free radical activity may lead to a number of chronic health problems such as heart disease, cancer, skin damage, diminished brain function, and other effects of aging.

Numerous research studies have looked at the potential contributions that antioxidants make toward maintaining overall health. For example, a 1998 Tufts University study conducted on animals showed that antioxidants in red and white grapes retard the effects of aging, including loss of memory and motor skills. A 1998 diet study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that eating more fruits and vegetables can increase the body’s antioxidant capacity. Previously, in 1995, the American Dietetic Association noted that regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods containing antioxidants can provide protection against certain diseases.

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Not all studies are in complete agreement, however. In fact, some studies have shown that supplements containing an antioxidant might actually act as a pro-oxidant—the exact opposite of what they were expected to do. Other studies have shown that the effect of the antioxidant was minimal. Studies such as these might also suggest that the effect of the antioxidant might depend on the individual person’s body, state of health, and other factors.

Consequently, more research needs to be done. The need for further research is particularly important because the potential for dietary health benefits may vary depending on the antioxidant and its chemical structure. Some antioxidants—for instance, gamma-tocotrienol—may have a greater potential than other antioxidants.

Other studies are suggesting that two nutrients need to work together, creating a sort of “antioxidant network,” which supports and enhances the activity of individual antioxidants.

For example, a recent study found that the growth-inhibitory effect of beta-carotene required the presence of the p21protein. This protein must be present in a cell for beta-carotene to have anti-cancer properties. It was previously noted that vitamin E increased activity of the protein. Researchers are beginning to realize that antioxidants, such as beta-carotene and vitamin E, can also work together in nonantioxidant functions that may reduce the risk of disease.

In another study, published in the medical journal Neurology, researchers found that there was a strong interaction between vitamins E and C in promoting cognitive performance among Japanese-American men living in Hawaii. The researchers also emphasized that a higher level of vitamin C can increase vitamin E levels.

If all this is so, the answer to certain health problems may lie in the development of different antioxidant blends. The potential health benefits of these blends, however, need to be determined by continuing research studies.

At the 2001 IFT Annual Meeting & IFT Food Expo, to be held in New Orleans this month, a number of ingredients with antioxidant capacity will be featured. Since food quality (as well as food safety) is a dominant theme, it is not too surprising that there should be highlighted a wide range of ingredients with antioxidant capacity that can help provide functionality and potential health benefits.

Many of these ingredients are promoted as natural. Research studies are available characterizing their antioxidant capacity and components which are responsible for this capacity. A variety of antioxidant blends, such as mixtures of tocopherols and rosemary or tocopherols and tocotrienols, have been developed which may offer even greater potential than any single antioxidant.

These antioxidants provide a good illustration of a number of current trends as well as technological and marketing developments. They may also give us some idea of the future directions that antioxidants may be taking.

The rest of this article will provide a look at some of the new antioxidants and the wide range of sources they come from, such as olive water, herbs, carob fruit, honey, buckwheat, rice bran oil, and tea extracts. As you can see, some of these sources are quite surprising.

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Water of olives. A dietary supplement derived from olive water rich in polyphenol antioxidants has been introduced by CreAgri Inc., Hayward, Calif. Called Olivenol™, the product was developed using wastewater generated from the production of olive oil.

According to the manufacturer, the water of the olives contains higher concentrations of polyphenols than those present in extracted olive oil. While high-quality, extra-virgin olive oils may contain 100–300 micrograms of polyphenols per liter of oil, the concentration of these same polyphenols is 300–500 times higher in olive water. One tablet of the dietary supplement reportedly contains the equivalent amount of antioxidant polyphenols present in approximately 5–6 oz of high-quality extra-virgin olive oil.

The product is made by a proprietary process whereby the pits are removed from the pulp of the olives and the polyphenolic-rich water is separated from the oil and processed to avoid air oxidation and to release the highest quantity of antioxidant-active compounds. The antioxidants are derived from the water of organically grown olives.

Pulp of the carob fruit. An insoluble dietary fiber produced from the pulp of the carob fruit is said to have antioxidative potential. Marketed under the name Caromax™ by Nutrinova, Frankfurt, Germany, the ingredient has a composition characterized by a high content of such components as lignin, polyphenols, and tannin—all of which are known to have antioxidative properties.

Although most insoluble dietary fibers show little antioxidative activity, in-vitro studies have demonstrated that the ingredient works as an efficient scavenger against free radicals and other reactive substances. Because of its composition, it also has a positive effect on the gut, cholesterol-lowering properties, and an impact on blood glucose level.

The ingredient exhibits excellent water-binding capacity and may be used in a variety of applications including baked goods; breakfast cereals, pasta, and other extruded items; health bars; yogurt and other dairy products; and cocoa-containing products.

The fruit of the carob tree from which the fiber is derived is mainly found in the Mediterranean area. The bean is commercially used to produce locust bean gum and the husk can be ground to a powder for use as a cocoa substitute.

Rice bran oil. Tocotrienols—a family of dietary supplements related to vitamin E—are considered to be powerful antioxidants. They can be found in the oil derived from such sources as rice bran, palm fruit, barley, and wheat germ. Commercial quantities of tocotrienols are extracted from the distillate of palm and rice bran oil.

A natural blend of tocotrienols and tocopherols (vitamin E) extracted and concentrated from rice bran oil distillate is available from Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, Tenn., and marketed under the name NuTriene. Because of its antioxidant properties, the supplement may offer a variety of health advantages. For example, tocotrienols may help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system or may counter the effects of exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Studies have also looked at their inhibitory effects on certain cancers.

Dietary intake of tocotrienols may offer certain advantages over vitamin E. Some studies suggest that the antioxidant potential of tocotrienols is greater than that of vitamin E in certain types of fatty cell membranes and in parts of brain cells. Vitamin E supplements generally contain only alpha-tocopherol, while this supplement contains mixtures of antioxidant nutrients for maintaining overall health.

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Herbs and spices. Spice research has focused on the antioxidant activity of spices and their essential oils. One obvious example, rosemary extract, exhibits antioxidant effects in foods. Research is also looking at other herb extracts, especially those belonging to the Labiatae family (oregano, rosemary, melissa, and sage) for potential antioxidant behavior.

Here are a couple of examples of recently developed antioxidants which have been derived from such herbs:

A natural antioxidant derived from edible herbs belonging to the Labiatae family has been developed by an Israel-based company, RAD Natural Technologies. Called Origanox, the extract is said to have a considerably higher antioxidant capability than vitamins C and E, BHA, and existing rosemary extracts.

According to the manufacturer, the extract’s antioxidative capacity comes from hydroxycinnamic acid compounds, such as rosmarinic acid, known to be a very effective free radical scavenger and inhibitor of enzymatic reactions. Purified extracts containing up to 50% rosmarinic acid are also offered for special applications in food processing and health food.

The product, which is effective at low dosing, is stable for long periods of time, is heat stable, and is organoleptically neutral in most applications. Available in powdered form, it is completely water soluble, making it effective in aqueous systems and emulsions. Potential application areas include meats, fish, nuts, and baked goods.

A tocopherol/rosemary blend called Fortium has been developed by Kemin Foods LC, Des Moines, Iowa. The antioxidant blend is a natural and heat-stable alternative to synthetic preservatives and is said to be more effective than either rosemary or tocopherols individually. The oil-soluble blend prevents oxidation, delaying rancidity and keeping foods fresher longer. It may be used in fresh ground meats, spices and oils, and other products.

Honey. The antioxidative properties of honey have been the subject of several studies sponsored by the National Honey Board.

One study, conducted at Clemson University, focused on poultry meat. The objective of the study was to determine if the addition of honey to poultry meat products prior to cooking would slow the rate of oxidation and extend the flavor quality of the final product. It was found that the addition of 15% honey to the product significantly reduced the rate of oxidation compared to the 0 and 5% honey samples. Furthermore, the 15% honey treatment had the highest cook yield, allowed the addition of more water without a loss in quality or yield, and had more protein and less fat. No bacterial growth was detected for total plate count over 11 weeks of refrigeration. A second study, also conducted at Clemson University, focused on the addition of honey to processed poultry meat and evaluated the flavor, color, microbial growth, and oxidative stability of the final product.

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Researchers are also trying to determine the mechanism by which honey acts as an antioxidant in meat. It is theorized that the Maillard reaction products are the source of the antioxidative effect. However, there may be other mechanisms in action. It may also be possible to form antioxidative flavor compounds by combining honey with meat proteins. These flavor compounds could then be added to meat products just prior to thermal processing.

At the 2001 IFT Annual Meeting, antioxidants in honey from different floral sources will be characterized by the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Although previous research demonstrated that honeys from various floral sources exhibited a range of antioxidant activities, little is known about individual honey components that are responsible for its protective effects. The major objective of this study was to characterize the antioxidant content of seven different honeys. Specific antioxidant components, including phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and the enzymes glucose oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase were identified and quantified. The antioxidant capacity of the honeys appeared to be primarily due to their phenolic composition as opposed to enzymatic antioxidants and ascorbic acid.

Buckwheat. Buckwheat extracts have potential application as a natural antioxidant in food and phytopharmaceutical products. Although extracts of buckwheat exert antioxidant ability, this ability can be affected by the extracting solvents, such as acetone, butanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methanol.

In a recent study, researchers at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, evaluated the antioxidative properties of crude extracts isolated from buckwheat by various extracting solvents and compared them with those of artificial antioxidants.

Results showed that the yield and antioxidant activity of natural extracts of buckwheat were closely dependent on the solvent used. Antioxidant activity of extracts from buckwheat increased when more polar solvents were used for extraction. Use of ethanol presented antioxidant activity similar to that of synthetic antioxidants.

Fruits. A variety of fruits are promoted for their healthy antioxidants, including dried plums, raisins, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and grapes. It would be impossible to cover them all in detail here, so let’s just look at a few of the more recent developments:
Dried plums. A Texas A&M study showed that dried plum ingredients were effective in reducing oxidative rancidity in precooked sausage products when compared with synthetic antioxidants. A Kansas State University study showed that dried plum puree and fresh plum juice effectively suppressed pathogens in meat products.

Blueberries. A variety of ongoing studies have looked at blueberries’ potential beneficial effects on eyesight, memory,and other aspects of aging. Researchers at the USDA Center for Aging at Tufts indicate that approximately one-half cup of blueberries provide a daily dose of antioxidants which may act to protect the body against damage from oxidative stress, one of several biological processes implicated in aging.

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Because of their health properties, blueberries are finding their way into a number of innovative products. Most recently, Finland’s largest dairy group Valio launched a blueberry milk product, Evolus, which reportedly may help lower blood pressure. The product has been the subject of two independent, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, including one study by the Finnish National Public Health Institute.

According to the North American Blueberry Council (NABC), San Francisco, Calif., it is possible to create “an antioxidant muffin” that contains one-half cup of blueberries—the amount needed to provide that daily dose of antioxidants. A copy of the recipe, Ultimate Blueberry Muffin, is available from NABC. Also, a variety of studies looking at the nutraceutical benefits of blueberries, including anti-cancer activity, reducing heart disease risk, preventing urinary tract infections, regulating blood sugar, and others, are offered by NABC.

Apples. A recent study conducted at the University of California (UC-Davis) Medical Center found that naturally occurring components in apples and apple juice may help slow some of the processes involved in the buildup of plaque that leads to heart disease. The study, published in the winter 2001 issue of the Journal of Medicinal Food, showed that, in healthy men and women, daily consumption of 12 oz of apple juice or two fresh apples reduced oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. The researchers noted that their findings in this clinical study are similar to previously published studies on tea and red wine that reported a similar reduction of oxidation.

In June 2000, Cornell University researchers reported that apple antioxidants inhibited the growth of certain types of cancer cells in a laboratory study. In the study, published in the June 22 issue of the journal Nature, colon cancer cells treated with 50 mg of apple extract (from the skins) were inhibited by 43%, while the apple flesh extract inhibited the colon cancer cells by 29%. The apple extract was also tested against human liver cancer cells. At 50 mg, the extract derived from the apple with the skin on inhibited those cancer cells by 57%, and the apple extract derived from the fruit’s fleshy part inhibited cancer cells by 40%. The scientists attributed the antioxidant capacity of apples to a combination of flavonoids and polyphenols and found that 100 g of fresh apple with skins provided the total antioxidant activity equal to 1,500 mg of vitamin C.

Recent population studies also have associated apple consumption with a reduced risk of lung cancer, improved lung function, reduced risk of certain types of stroke, and reduced risk of coronary mortality.

Cherries. Studies indicate that cherries have significant levels of melatonin, a potent antioxidant. The University of Texas Health Science Center is conducting research to determine the amount of active melatonin available to the human body after the consumption of tart cherry juice or other cherry products. Once identified, researchers will be able to calculate the optimum level of cherries that should be consumed to achieve the greatest health benefits. This may be especially important for the older population because the human body’s ability to produce melatonin decreases as it ages. Also, the presence of melatonin in combination with other known antioxidants in cherries could have a wider range of health benefits.

Grapes. Grape skin extract—called MegaNatural® GSKE— is said to be higher in total phenols and antioxidant capacity than most grape seed extracts available. Recently introduced by Polyphenolics Inc., Madera, Calif., the standardized product has a minimum of 80% polyphenols and a minimum of 1.5% anthocyanins. In testing conducted at the University of Scranton, it reportedly performed better than a variety of other natural antioxidants.

Fruit powders. Freeze-Dried Fruit and Vegetable Powders, available from Crystals International, Plant City, Fla., are said to have superior antioxidant retention, making them suitable as ingredients for nutraceutical foods targeted to address antioxidant vitamin deficiencies. These powders are made by a low-heat, low-oxidation freeze-drying process that takes place within a vacuum chamber. Products in the Crystals™ line include Orange Freeze-Dried Fruit Powder 12009, a rich source of vitamin C; Red Sour Cherry Freeze-Dried Fruit Powder 12079, for a burst of vitamin A; Carrot Freeze-Dried Vegetable Powder 11074, for the benefits of beta-carotene; and a variety of other berry, citrus, and vegetable powders.

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Tea. Matcha is a high-quality, green tea beverage that has been consumed by the Japanese throughout history. The ingredient catechin, known to be an antioxidant with healthful properties, is found in this traditional beverage. From the green tea leaves can be derived a green powder that may be used as a flavor in various food products, while retaining the health benefits of green tea.

Natural Green Tea Leaf Powder, available from Taiyo International, Inc., Edwina, Minn., is rich in antioxidants and other nutrients. It is prepared by milling specially cultivated green tea leaves under very low temperatures, so as to maintain the original levels of polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, fibers, chlorophyll, and the amino acid L-theanine. The green powder can be used as a flavor in instant beverages, dairy products, baked goods, and confections.

Aiya Co., Ltd., New York, N.Y., is also introducing matcha, highlighting it in ice cream and soy milk to be demonstrated at the 2001 IFT Food Expo.

Vegetable-derived sources. Several vegetables, such as kale, spinach, Brussels sprouts, beets, corn, and red bell pepper have high antioxidant activity.

Natural antioxidant systems, developed and marketed under the name Covi-ox® by Cognis Corp., LaGrange, Ill., are isolated from vegetable oils and concentrated to contain naturally occurring d-alpha-, dbeta-, d-gamma-, and d-delta-tocopherols. The fat-soluble antioxidants provide protection against food oxidation in fats and oils, meats, poultry, bread, cereal, baked goods, dairy, fish, and a variety of other products. They do not impart a flavor, color, or odor to the final products.

Antioxidant sources may also be emerging from different parts of the world. For example, one interesting vegetable from South America, purple corn, has a high anthocyanin content, making it reportedly a potent antioxidant. Purple corn has a variety of applications: it may be used not only as an antioxidant, but also as a natural color additive in foods and drinks, and its juice may be used as a drink. The product is available from ATZ Natural, North Bergen, N.J.

Specially formulated vitamin. Dry vitamin E, developed by Roche Vitamins, Parsippany, N.J., provides the advantages of an antioxidant for use in clear and light-colored beverages, such as juices, water, and flavored seltzers. The ingredient—called Dry Vitamin E 15% CC —is said be specially formulated to eliminate problems of unsightly oily surface ringing or bottom sedimentation in beverage containers,while fortifying the beverage with vitamin E. It delivers consistency and high-performance fortification to beverage applications and has potential in creating new healthful beverage products.

A new study demonstrates that one ounce of almonds a day increases the amount of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in the bloodstream to 14% higher than the controls. The study, “Effect of Almonds on Antioxidant Status and Platelet Activity,” was presented by researchers at Loma Linda University during the 2001 Experimental Biology Conference.

Subjects in this metabolic study were fed a control diet, a low-almond diet, or a high-almond diet. Blood levels of alpha-tocopherol were measured to see what effect almonds had on the plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol. The researchers found that the greatest increase of alpha-tocopherol in the blood occurred when 1 oz of almonds (the low-almond diet) was included in a 2,000-calorie diet.

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According to lead researcher Ella Haddad, vitamin E is an important antioxidant that promotes cardiovascular health, among other benefits. “But people should be aware that synthetic forms of vitamin E may not be as effective as we have previously assumed.” Research has shown that only 50% of the synthetic form of alpha-tocopherol vitamin E in most supplements is absorbed into the bloodstream.

The current study suggests that consuming almonds and other foods naturally rich in alpha-tocopherol is an effective means of meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin E. The National Academy of Sciences report recommends 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol day with an emphasis on natural sources. Almonds contain 7.2 mg of the nutrient per ounce (approximately 23–25 almonds).

Antioxidants may be derived from a wide range of other sources not discussed here. Smoke flavor, for example, has been studied for its antioxidant properties which could eliminate warmed-over flavor caused by oxidation in hamburgers and other pre-cooked beef products.

Natural antioxidant systems such as grapeseed extract and pine bark extract have also been evaluated for their potential in preventing warmed-over flavor in cooked beef. These antioxidants are used in the formulation of supplements to reduce the risk of certain diseases.

Products such as soy components, oil fractions of cereal grains, mustard, tomato products, distillations of vitamins, juices rich in nutrients, garlic, cinnamon, and many, many others have all been studied for their antioxidant potential.

And that doesn’t even take into consideration the potential antioxidant blends that can be developed, with ingredients derived from different sources working together to enhance the overall antioxidant activity.

But, as noted earlier in this article, there is no one magic bullet. Research is frequently showing that antioxidants need to work together when arriving at solutions, whether those solutions deal with preserving food quality or—even more altruistically—preserving the quality of life.

Tapioca Starches—called Elastitex™are said to impart elastic texture to noodles. The modified starches improve the elasticity in Oriental-style noodles when 5–15% of the wheat flour is replaced with them. They help the water penetrate the protein matrix, allowing noodles to cook out rapidly in boiling water or even in hot water systems. The starches also reduce swelling in cooked noodles, significantly extends bowl life, and shortens cooking time because of a fast hydration rate and low gelatinization temperature. For more information, write to National Starch and Chemical Co., P.O. Box 6500, Bridgewater, NJ 08807-0500 (phone 800-797-4992; fax 609-409-5699)—or circle 300.

Cinnamon Bun Flavor may be used in nutritional bars, yogurt, creamers, and bakery mixes. The flavor is said to provide a sweet, cinnamon, caramelized brown sugar, buttery flavor profile, reminiscent of the food the flavor is named after. For more information, write to Robertet Flavors, Inc., 10 Colonial Dr., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (phone 732-981-8300; fax 732-981-1717)—or circle 301.

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Smoky Asiago Cheese has application in cooked Italian entrees, red and white sauces, and baked goods. The product is said to provide a balance of smoke flavor to the traditional creamy, nutty, slightly peppery notes found in fresh Asiago. It may also be used as shredding cheese. For more information, write to Sartori Food Corp., P.O. Box 258, Plymouth, WI 53073 (phone 920-893-6061; fax 920-892-2732)—or circle 302.

Flavors of the Caribbean can be achieved by a line of ethnic flavors. Fruit and chili flavors help create the sweet/hot combinations found in sauces and side dishes, while brown, grill, and herb flavors are suitable for use in marinated and barbecued meats. All flavorings are available in natural, natural-artificial, or natural WONF formulations in liquid or powdered forms. They are retort, process, and freeze-thaw stable, ensuring flavor fidelity through all processing conditions. For more infor-mation, write to Innova, a Griffith Laboratories Company, 2021 Swift Dr., Oak Brook, IL 60523 (phone 630-928-4800)—or circle 303.

Onion Flavor Promo Kit consists of fresh (green, raw); fried (sauteed, fatty/oily, or sweet); and roasted (brown, caramelized) onion flavor samples. Onion flavors have wide-ranging applications, such as sauces, soups, dressings, condiments, meat products, potato products, snack foods, dairy products, and baked goods. Some of the benefits of these flavors include consistency and reliability, savings in preparation, food safety, even dispersion, optimum product formulations, and product differentiation. In addition to its five onion flavor samples, the kit contains an informational brochure with a sample recipe for Instant French Onion Soup Base. For more information, write to Dragoco, 10 Gordon Dr., Totowa, NJ 07512 (phone 973-256-3850; fax 973-256-8874)—or circle 304.

Flavors for Microwavable Popcorn include a variety of butters that are enhanced with Mediterranean Spice, Chili-Lime, and Soy Sauce. The flavorings may be applied before popping, or used as an addition to popped corn. According to the manufacturer, the butter flavorings range from a fresh to a sweet cream character and may be used in pop-corns requiring a light buttery flavor or a richer, more intense “movie theater” style butter taste. All flavors are available in liquid and powder forms. Usage rate is suggested at 0.2–0.8% in a finished product (may be higher with the liquid versions). For more information, write to Ottens Flavors, 7800 Holstein Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19153 (phone 215-365-7801; fax 215-365-7801)—or circle 305.

Sodium Bicarbonate—called Tortilla Blend™—is designed for optimal leavening of tortillas. The product, when used with leavening acids, is said to eliminate baking powder in the manufacture of tortillas. Its use can result in tortillas having substantial improvements in their appearance, texture, and flavor. For more information, write to Church & Dwight Co., Inc., 469 N. Harrison St., Princeton, NJ 08543-5297 (phone 215-345-4525; fax 215-345-0187)—or circle 306.

Organic Gum Arabic—called TICorganic™—may be used in a variety of food and pharmaceutical applications, including beverage and flavor emulsions, confectionery coatings, and functional foods. Gum arabic is an excellent source of soluble dietary fiber but does not alter the viscosity of the finished product. For more information, write to TIC Gums, Inc., P.O. Box 369, Belcamp, MD 21017 (phone 410-273-7300; fax 410-273-6469)—or circle 307.

Sweetness Enhancers are designed to intensify the perception and potency of traditional sweeteners such as sugar, fructose, and honey. They complement characterizing flavor notes, increase flavor impact, and minimize unwanted aftertaste. Sweetness enhancers have been developed for a variety of applications, including bakery, confectionery, beverages, and dessert products. They can be used alone or with other ingredients to provide the desired profile. For more information, write to David Michael & Co., Inc., 10801 Decatur Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19154 (phone 215-632-3100; fax 215-637-3920)—or circle 308.

Associate Editor

About the Author

Food Technology magazine Senior Editor and key member of the Food Technology editorial staff for 26 years.
Donald Pszczola