ISAAC N.A. ASHIE

The term enzyme (which means “in leaven”) was not part of our scientific vocabulary until 1878, when it was coined by Kuhne. The effects of enzymes as agents of chemical, physical, and functional change in foods, however, had been observed and exploited for several centuries earlier in products like cheese, meat, beer, wine, baked goods, etc.

For example, Greek epic poems dating back to 800 B.C. had made reference to the role of enzymes in cheese production, and Spallanzani observed meat digestio…

Table 1—Some industrial enzymes from plant, animal, and microbial sources

Fig. 1—Industrial process of enzyme production.

Fig. 2—From cloning vector to production strain.

Fig. 3—Expression cloning.

Table 2—Some examples of enzymes modified by gene manipulation techniquesFig. 5—Random-priming recombination (RPR).

Fig. 6—Incremental truncation.

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