J. Peter Clark

Extraction describes a wide variety of unit operations found in the food industry, including the manufacture of soluble coffee and tea, vegetable oils, fruit juices, and flavors and the removal of undesirable substances such as caffeine. Strictly speaking, some of these operations should be called leaching, washing, or expression, but it is common to call them extraction.

Operations may seem relatively simple, as when fruits are crushed and their juices removed by pressure. However, to enhance re…

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