Off-flavors in foods can arise from environmental sources such as air, water, and packaging materials, from chemical and biochemical reactions occurring within the food itself, and from flavor–matrix interactions, all of which can imbalance the intrinsic flavor profile. The interactions of flavor chemicals with food matrices and food macromolecules—proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates—can result in physical entrapment via formation of covalent, hydrogen, electrostatic, and hydrophobic bonds, whic…

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