Ultrasonics can be defined as the study and application of sound waves using frequencies higher than those that the human ear can respond to (~16 kHz). Both low- and high-intensity ultrasonic technologies have found a myriad of applications in industry.

Low-intensity applications are those whose primary purpose is to transmit the energy through a medium without changing the state of the medium; i.e., the energy level is so low that the medium remains unchanged from its original state after the wa…

Figure 1. Chirp generated by ultrasonic spectrometer.

Figure 2. Ultrasonic spectrometer signal from which the integrated response, time of flight, and full-width half-maximum parameters can be obtained.Figure 3. Experimental setup to optimize ultrasonic spectroscopy for inline applications.

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