The importance of vitamin K, phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinones (MKn), extends beyond the antihemorrhagic factor identified in the late 1930s. Vitamin K, in either form, participates as a cofactor for a specific unique enzyme, γ-glutamyl carboxylase. The reduced form of the vitamin in the presence of CO2 converts the glutamate moieties of several coagulation proteins to γ-carboxyglutamate amino acids. The resulting modified proteins act as calcium-binding proteins, which stimulate the coagulati…

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