J. Peter Clark

Freeze-drying is an underused and under appreciated technology that could be considered the gold standard for dehydration of foods and pharmaceuticals. Compared to other dehydration technologies, it may be more expensive, but it produces materials that are difficult to duplicate in any other way.

Freeze-drying relies on sublimation of ice directly to vapor without passing through a liquid phase. This requires maintaining conditions that are dictated by the phase diagram for water. Sublimation occ…

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  1. Food Processing & Packaging