Scientific journals CRFSFS

Author Guidelines


The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) publishes peer-reviewed scientific journals to provide high-quality research on the science and technology of food. The Journal of Food Science (JFS), available with subscription online, provides results of original research and short interpretive reviews on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of food science and technology. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (CRFSFS), available online, provides in-depth interpretive reviews in these same areas and in risk analysis. IFT is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.

Scientific Editor: Mary Ellen Camire, PhD, University of Maine

Editor in Chief: Richard Hartel, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The aim of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety is to offer scientists a variety of unique reviews dealing with food science and technology. CRFSFS publishes in-depth, extended (>10,000 words including references) reviews that address the chemical, microbiological, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of foods, food processing and engineering, analytical methods, and packaging. Reviews on nutritional properties of foods should not focus solely on isolated compounds and in vitro research but should provide readers with a realistic perspective of how foods as eaten may influence health as well as how food processing, consumer practices, and storage influence the bioactivity of the food components. Reviews addressing topics in consumer food behavior, psychological aspects of food selection and consumption, risk assessment and management, and the scientific basis of food regulations are also considered. Reviews dealing with agronomy, food crop breeding, or non-food applications of food components are discouraged. Papers addressing food issues in a single nation are also not likely to be considered.

Occasionally, special government and institutional reports are published, as well as symposium proceedings deemed to be comprehensive. Authors are advised to consult prior issues of the journal to avoid duplication of topics, since only unique reviews will be considered. This journal does not extend invitations to authors, but researchers may wish to consult the Scientific Editor regarding the suitability of the topic prior to submission. 

Technical Requirements

  • Comprehensive Reviews (submitted to the journal CRFSFS) should be between 10,000 and 25,000 words in the body text and references.
  • If your review is under 10,000 words in the body text + references, please submit it to the Journal of Food Science as a Concise Review.
  • Manuscript text must be double-spaced with continuous line numbering.
  • Use APA Style.
  • All authors’ CRediT contributions must be added in the manuscript submission form. Each author’s contribution must comply with the ICMJE criteria for authorship.
  • Authors must disclose conflicts of interest in a “Conflicts of Interest” section at the end of the body text.
  • Submit to any of IFT’s journals online at

Performance Attributes

  • Data from Journal Citation Reports, 2020 Impact Factor: 12.811
  • Ranking: 2/144 journals in Food Science & Technology.
  • Acceptance rate (2020): 28.7%
  • Submit-to-1st decision average time: 30 days
  • Submit-to-accept average time: 141 days (includes author revision time)
  • Accept-to-online publication average time: 34 days

Diversity & Inclusion

IFT’s has dedicated itself to three important pillars: diversity, inclusion, and equity, with the goal to leverage all three to advance our mission and the science of food. We are committed to fostering diverse and inclusive editorial boards, reviewer pools, and authorship of IFT’s scientific journals. Learn more about DEI at IFT.


Author criteria

Authorship is restricted to those who meet the ICMJE criteria, those who have:

  • Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;
  • AND aided in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  • AND given final approval of the version to be published;
  • AND agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Ghost, guest, honorary, or anonymous authorship is not allowed. Contributors who do not qualify for authorship should be mentioned in the acknowledgments.

We advise against the submission of a manuscript by a single author, particularly those who have not attained their final degree, because multiple authors reviewing the manuscript before submission are more likely to identify mistakes that can easily be addressed. The addition or removal of authors after the initial submission is discouraged and requires consultation with the Scientific Editor.


When submitting a manuscript, the submitting author will be asked to enter each co-author’s name and contact information, then select from a drop-down list each author’s contribution(s) to the work using the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) as well as the degree of contribution for each role (Lead, Equal, or Supporting). 

From this metadata, an Author Contributions section will be generated automatically during the production process and added to the proof of the manuscript.

Authors may have multiple roles, and the ICMJE authorship criteria still apply—for example, a person whose only contribution to the work is Resources may not qualify as an author but can be thanked in the acknowledgments.


For CRFSFS, authorship is not restricted. Peer review is the best of all possible quality assurance systems. However, authors relatively new to a field, such as recent graduate students and individuals without prior publications on the subject under review, must have at least one co-author with recognized experience in that area. In addition to the stated requirements for authors, expectations from authors of comprehensive reviews are:

  • Good writing
  • Adherence to the journal's style and format
  • manuscript presentation with double-spaced, line-numbered text
  • interpretation of the references cited so that meaning as well as the data of each are easily understood
  • analysis and summary of important concepts under discussion
  • identification of further research needed on the subject
  • listing references in the required format.

Exclusivity of work

The corresponding author must verify, on behalf of all authors (if more than one), that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content has been published, accepted for publication, or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure the integrity of all submitted works. For further guidance, see the Wiley Publication Ethics Guide.

The editorial staff will check all manuscripts for plagiarism and improperly-cited content with similarity detection software. If sections are found that are (1) the same as in authors’ previous manuscripts (self-plagiarism) or (2) copied from other manuscripts, they will be considered ethical violations and the manuscript will be rejected and author sanctions considered.

Conflicts of interest

Each author must disclose any meaningful affiliation or involvement, direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, patents received or pending, royalties, honoraria, expert testimony) in the past 3 years, or longer if readers might perceive that a potential conflict of interest exists. In the interest of transparency, it is better to err on the side of caution and disclose any perceived conflicts. These kinds of financial involvement are fairly common, unavoidable, and generally do not constitute a basis for rejecting a manuscript. A disclosure statement should be included at the end of the manuscript under the heading “Conflicts of Interest”.

In addition, a separate section “Funding” should list all sources of financial support for the work. Materials support and contributions from individuals who don’t qualify as authors should be acknowledged in the “Acknowledgments” section.


Opinions expressed in articles published in an IFT journal are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent opinions of IFT. IFT does not guarantee the appropriateness, for any purpose, of any method, product, process, or device described or identified in an article. Trade names, when used, are only for identification and do not constitute endorsement by IFT.

Authors are expected to adhere to established ethical best practices, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) International Standards for Authors (link to PDF).

All submissions to IFT's journals are screened for overlap with other previously-published materials using iThenticate software. Manuscripts with excessive overlap will be rejected outright after review by editorial staff.

For manuscripts published under the traditional/default model, the corresponding author will be asked to digitally sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement on behalf of all authors upon acceptance of the manuscript, transferring copyright to IFT (except in cases where the work cannot be copyrighted, e.g., works authored solely by U.S. government employees as part of their employment duties).

Copyright terms and authors’ rights (PDF)

For manuscripts published Open Access, a Creative Commons (CC-BY) license is used.

Reproduction of all or any significant portion of an IFT publication is prohibited unless permission is received from IFT. Authors have the right to reproduce portions of their own papers with proper acknowledgment and retain the right to any patentable subject material that might be contained therein. Authors can obtain permission online through Rightslink, which is an automated online permissions service available 24 hours/day. You can do so by locating the article you want to reuse and clicking on the “Request Permissions” link under the “Article Tools” menu on the abstract page.

More details

Factors considered when judging the suitability of a manuscript for publication are: interest readers will have in the subject; relevance to human foods; originality, scientific quality (including appropriateness of the experimental design and methods, depth of investigation, proper statistical analysis of the data); importance and substance of the results; and the thoroughness and accuracy with which the results are interpreted. IFT membership is not a prerequisite for publication.

There is a 10,000-word minimum and 25,000 word maximum (text plus references) for papers in CRFSFS. Reviews under 10,000 words should be submitted to the JFS "Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science" section.

If your review has original data, we encourage you to share the data and other artifacts supporting the results in the paper by archiving it in an appropriate public repository. Authors should include a data accessibility statement, including a link to the dataset under an additional subhead, entitled "Data Availability", after the Conclusions section. Visit or to help identify registered and certified data repositories relevant to your research.

If the data has not been archived in a public repository, to assist in the review process, the editors may request the original data for review.

All submitted manuscripts are screened by the Scientific Editor for language, importance, interest to subscribers, substance, appropriateness for the journal, unique topic, and general scientific quality. Those failing to meet current standards are rejected by the Scientific Editor without further review. Those manuscripts meeting these initial standards are sent to an Associate Editor, who assigns referees (also called “reviewers”).

  • CRFSFS uses a single-blind review process. Author identities are disclosedvisible to the referees, but referee identities are not disclosed to the author. 
  • Associate Editors strive to obtain three or more referees for each manuscript.
  • In the submission form, authors are asked to recommend the names of two to four experts who are qualified to review the manuscript but who have no personal or professional relationships with the authors and who work at other institutions. Former professors and students should not be suggested as reviewers.
  • For more information about our review policies, see our Reviewer Resources page.
  • It is the policy of CRFSFS to blind Editorial Board members from the peer-review process of their own submissions, just as all authors are blinded. Alternate editors handle submissions made by Editorial Board members to ensure an unbiased review process.

When the initial review is complete, the Associate Editor will send you the referees’ suggestions along with his or her suggestions. You are expected to respond in a cover letter to all suggestions either by making appropriate revisions or stating why the suggestions are unreasonable. The Associate Editor will consider your revisions, and provide the Scientific Editor with a recommendation to accept, revise, or reject your manuscript. Occasionally a peer- reviewer insists on a re-evaluation. If a second revision of a manuscript is still not satisfactory, it may be rejected. You will be informed by the Scientific Editor of the final decision.

To appeal a decision by the Scientific Editor or report problems related to the review process or published journal, please contact the Editor in Chief, Richard Hartel or the Editorial Office ([email protected]).

There are no page charges for IFT Premier, Student, or Emeritus Members. To join IFT to take advantage of this benefit, visit the Membership section of this site.

For non-IFT-members and IFT Networking & Engagement members, page charges of $95 per page are assessed just prior to publication.

Alternatively, authors can publish their article Open Access at the current Open Access APC rate.

If none of the authors is able to join IFT to get the free publishing benefit, authors may request a waiver of publication charges after acceptance of the manuscript, prior to publication. Waivers will be granted to authors based in eligible Research4Life countries.

An author’s ability to pay for page charges is not a factor in consideration of submissions. Waiver requests should be e-mailed to the Editorial Office at [email protected].

An Open Access option is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers upon publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With Open Access, the author, the author’s funding agency, or the author’s institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency’s preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Open Access articles are subject to a Creative Commons license, instead of traditional copyright transfer to IFT. After acceptance, the author can choose the Open Access option in Wiley Author Services when asked to complete copyright information.

This journal accepts artwork submissions for Cover Images. This is an optional service you can use to help increase article exposure and showcase your research. For more information, including artwork guidelines, pricing, and submission details, please visit the Journal Cover Image page. Wiley Editing Services offers a professional cover image design service that creates eye-catching images, ready to be showcased on the journal cover.

CRFSFS works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Food Science & Nutrition, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Food Science & Nutrition. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Food Science & Nutrition will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Food Science & Nutrition is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information, please go to

Comments, observations, different perspectives, and suggestions for improving concepts and techniques of previously published manuscripts are welcome and accepted. Please e-mail letters for consideration to Scientific Editor Mary Ellen Camire

Language, units of measurement and symbols

Use the English language (American spelling and usage) and the SI system (Système International d’Unités, often referred to as “International Units”) for measurements and units.

Style and format 

Your manuscript should be consistent with APA style, detailed in the current edtion of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Refer to for examples or contact the Editorial Office ([email protected]) with questions. 

Page Format

  • Continuous line-numbering for the entire manuscript is mandatory. 
  • Double-space the entire manuscript. 
  • Submitted manuscripts must list full names for all authors; that is, full first/given name(s), middle initial(s), and last/surname(s). 

Failure to comply with these formatting instructions can result in automatic return of the manuscript without review. Try to restrict individual file sizes to 5Mb maximum. Larger files may be hosted, but these can lead to download issues for users. 

A manuscript template in Microsoft® Word is available to help you format your submission.

Table of contents (recommended) 

A listing of major section headers or table of contents helps readers navigate the manuscript. This is not published with the paper, but helps for the review process. 

Title page

  • Enter full title (be concise) Do not use trade names in titles. Do not use abbreviations and acronyms in titles. 
  • Enter name(s) of author(s) and author affiliation(s) with complete address(es). 
  • Provide contact information for the corresponding author, including full name, complete mailing address, phone, fax, and e-mail address. 
  • Enter the word count of the body text, including Abstract and references but not including tables and figures. Word count should be greater than 10,000 words (body text and references). Use double-spacing. 
  • Enter short version of title (less than 40 letters and spaces). 
  • Provide previous address(es) of author(s) if research was conducted at a place different from current affiliation. 


  • Enter “ABSTRACT:” followed by abstract text, preferably not exceeding 250 words; define all acronyms and abbreviations; do not cite references. State in one paragraph basic background, major results, and conclusions. 
  • Upon submission in ScholarOne Manuscripts, you will be asked to provide 5 keywords for indexing purposes. It is highly recommended to choose keywords from our established list in ScholarOne Manuscripts, when possible, to aid in consistency. 


  • Enter introductory text; review pertinent work; cite key references; explain the importance of the topic and the objectives of your work.  

Body text 

  • Topic must be covered in depth and information must be critically evaluated (strengths, weaknesses, discussion of discrepancies in results among similar studies) so that insightful, integrative interpretations and conclusions are achieved. 
  • Abbreviations and acronyms. At first use in the text, use full length form followed by the acronym in parentheses. Use only the acronym for subsequent mentions. 


State conclusions (not a summary or continuing discussion) briefly in one paragraph and without references. 

Funding (if applicable)

List all sources of financial support.


List the names of contributors who are not authors. 

Conflicts of Interest (required)

Declare any conflicts of interest, or state that there are none to declare.

Data Availability (if applicable)

If you have deposited an original dataset to a repository, link to it in a brief statement here.

Nomenclature (if needed) 

Enter a list of abbreviations used in the manuscript and their definitions. 


Alphabetically list only those references cited in the text. Required format is described below. 


  • Enter one table per page after the references. Be sure you have cited each table within the text. 
  • Enter a short descriptive caption at the top of each table, preceded by an identifying Arabic numeral. 
  • Columns and their headings are normally (but not always) used to display the dependent variable(s) being presented in the table. 
  • Footnotes should be identified by lowercase letters or number (e.g., a, b, c; 1, 2, 3) appearing as superscripts in the body of the table and preceding the footnote below the table. The same data should not appear in both tables and figures. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • Tables including a large amount of data with few significant differences should instead be described in a sentence along with “(data not shown)”. 

Figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and other illustrations) 

General instructions

  • Enter one figure per page after the tables (if any). Be sure you have cited each figure within the text, using Arabic numerals.
  • Enter the figure number and descriptive caption at the bottom of each figure. 
  • You are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted figures. Proof of permission to reproduce is required. 
  • Submit your figures at least twice the size they will appear when published at 300 dots per inch (dpi) or greater. 
  • Be sure to use lettering, data lines, and symbols sufficiently large and thick to be clearly legible when the figure is reduced to the normal published size. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • Avoid redundancy between the figure caption and information in the figure.

Special instructions for graphs 

  • Keep as simple as possible. 
  • Dependent variable should be presented on the vertical axis (y or ordinate). 
  • Independent variable should be presented on the horizontal axis (x or abscissa). 
  • The label for each axis should be parallel to, and centered on, the axis; that is, the label for the vertical axis should be rotated 90° counterclockwise from normal. 
  • Axis labels should be followed by the units of measurement in parentheses, with abbreviations shown elsewhere in these Instructions. 
  • Range of values presented on each axis should be no larger than the range of values being presented. 
  • All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account. 
  • If data lines are close together and/or intersect, do not present more than 4 lines per figure. 
  • If data lines are well separated and few or none intersect, a maximum of about 8 lines per figure may be entered. 
  • Identify lines directly, if feasible. If not, enter key box at a blank area inside the graph. 
  • Avoid simultaneous use of a new symbol and a new line style. 
  • Avoid, if possible, presenting more than 8 data bars per figure. 
  • Avoid using shades of gray on bars or lines. 

Appendix (if needed)

Examples are complicated calculations or additional data tables. 

Supplemental materials

Multimedia (audio, video, and animation) files demonstrating important information relevant to the article can be published as supplemental material. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains entirely with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect. 

Manuscripts must follow the name-year reference format specified in APA style, detailed in the Publication Manual of the  Americal Psychological Association, 7th Edition, 2020. Refer to for examples. Cite only necessary publications and use primary rather than secondary references when possible. It is acceptable to cite work that is “forthcoming” (that is, accepted but not yet published) with the pertinent year and, if available, the DOI. Works that are “submitted” and under review are not to be cited. Use of reference management software such as EndNote is highly recommended.

In text

When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Otherwise, place both the name and the year in parentheses, separated by a comma. If the work has two authors, cite with both names. If the work has three or more authors, always cite with the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons.


Wlodkowski (2008) showed that…
…was shown (Wlodkowski, 2008).
Walker and Allen (2004) demonstrated…
…was demonstrated (Walker & Allen, 2004).
Pei et al. (2015) [3 or more authors, always cite with “et al.”]
… studies (Lucci & Mazzafera, 2009, 2011) focused…
… work (Dawson, 1999; Briggs, 2004) demonstrated…

In reference section

List only references cited in the text. List references alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). References must be complete, containing up to 20 author's surnames and all relevant publication data, including DOI whenever possible. In the case of references to papers presented at a meeting, the full title of the paper, when and where it was presented, and the name of the sponsoring society must be given. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, please refer to or contact the Editorial Office.


  • Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn (3rd ed). Jossey-Bass John Wiley & Sons.
  • Yore, L. D. (2004). Why do future scientists need to study the language arts? In E. W. Saul (Ed.), Crossing borders in literacy and science instruction: Perspectives on theory and practice (pp. 71–94). International Reading Association.
  • Bhatt, T., Gooch, M., Dent, B., & Sylvia, G. (2017). Implementing interoperability in the seafood industry: learning from experiences in other sectors. Journal of Food Science, 82(S1), A22–A44.
  • Pei, L., Ou, Y., Yu, W., Fan, Y., Huang, Y., Lim, J, . . . Lai, K. (2015). Au-Ag core-shell nanospheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of Sudan I and Sudan II in chili powder. Journal of Nanomaterials, 16, 215-221.
  • Abrams, E. M., & Gerstner, T. V. (2015). Allergy to cooked, but not raw, peas: A case series and review. Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology. Advance online publication.

Submitting Your Manuscript

IFT’s journals only accept submissions via our ScholarOne Manuscripts site.

Manuscripts must be submitted in an editable text format (filetype .doc, .docx, or .rtf). Your computer system must be equipped with: (1) current version of a common web browser, (2) current version of Adobe Acrobat Reader, and (3) e-mail capability.

Getting Started

Go to

Create an account or log in. Your default login ID is your email address. (Use your existing account; do not create new accounts with new submissions.)

Create a new submission and select the manuscript type: Comprehensive Review.

Note: This site is within an IFT ScholarOne portal which also includes the Journal of Food Science submission site. Your account will work for both journals, and you can navigate between journals using the journal drop-down menu on the home page of each journal's site.

Completing Submission

  • Follow the steps to complete each page in the submission form.
  • Authors should explain in a cover letter to the Scientific Editor why the review of the topic is needed and how it differs from related reviews that have been published or are in press for the past two years.
  • You must add all co-authors in the required space in the submission form. Provide valid e-mail addresses for all co-authors and look up their existing accounts in the system before creating any new accounts.
  • Figures (with captions) and tables (with captions) should be inserted at the end, after the references.
  • To assist in the review process, the SE, AE, or reviewer may request the author to submit the original data.
  • When prompted to do so, please provide the names, titles, and contact information (affiliations and e-mail addresses) for 2 to 4 individuals you consider appropriate referees for your manuscript. Non-preferred referees may also be named.
  • The final step to submit requires that you review your PDF submission. Please check that all of your files appear and are in the correct order.
  • Checking on the Status of Your Manuscript
    During the review process, the submitting author may track the progress of his/her manuscript at any time by logging onto ScholarOne Manuscripts (

After acceptance, the corresponding author will receive further information on copyright transfer and tracking production of your paper through Wiley Author Services.

We will use the accepted files on ScholarOne Manuscripts for production. If you need to make final edits suggested by the editor, please e-mail a final file as soon as possible to [email protected], or you may make those edits at the proofing stage. Label all electronic files or hard-copy figures with the assigned manuscript ID number and figure numbers.

A few weeks after production of your manuscript begins, you will receive a PDF proof via e-mail so you can make any final minor corrections. You are responsible for all statements appearing in the page proof. If you are not available to review the page proof, you should authorize someone else to carefully study the page proof for errors.

Post-publication Corrections
After publication, if a mistake is noticed, authors may issue corrigenda to fix errors made by the authors or request that the journal issue an erratum to correct errors made during the production process.

In cases where authors wish to change their name following publication, Wiley will update and republish the paper and redeliver the updated metadata to indexing services. Our editorial and production teams will use discretion in recognizing that name changes may be of a sensitive and private nature for various reasons including (but not limited to) alignment with gender identity, or as a result of marriage, divorce, or religious conversion. Accordingly, to protect the author’s privacy, we will not publish a correction notice to the paper, and we will not notify co-authors of the change. Authors should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with their name change request. 


If you encounter difficulties in submitting your manuscript to ScholarOne Manuscripts, or for any other queries, contact the editorial office at:

Email: [email protected]  
Office phone: +1.312.806.0246
Mobile: +1.312.806.8088

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Trans fats are desired by the edible oil industry as they impart firmness, plasticity, and oxidative stability to oil. However, clinical trials have demonstrated the adverse effects of trans fats in food on human health and nutrition. Regulatory actions have been taken up by government and non-government bodies worldwide to eliminate the presence of trans fats in the food supply. The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a “REPLACE” action plan to eliminate trans-fat from the global food industry by 2023. A few enabling technologies are developed to mitigate trans fats namely, trait-enhanced oils, modification in the hydrogenation process, interesterification, fractionation, blending, and oleogelation. Some of them have the drawback of replacing trans-fat with saturated fats. Interesterification and oleogelation are in-trend techniques with excellent potential in replacing trans fats without compromising the desired functionality and nutritional quality attributes. This review presents an overview of trans fatty acid for example, its dietary intake in food products, possible adverse health impact, regulations, and approaches to reduce the usage of trans fats for food application.

Flipped laboratory classes: Student performance and perceptions in undergraduate food science and technology

In STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses, undergraduate laboratory classes are vital for students to develop competencies such as critical observation, collaboration, critical thinking, technical, and problem-solving skills. Thus, for students to successfully acquire these competencies, preparation for laboratory classes is essential. This study aimed to explore the students' performance and perceptions of online pre-laboratory videos and quizzes in undergraduate food science and technology. Quantitative data on student usage statistics of the videos, student performance in online quizzes and practical reports scores and student perceptions were analysed to provide a detailed perspective of the course. The students' performance was above 60% in all pre-lab quizzes for both the 2018 and 2019 cohorts. The average pre-lab video views were higher in the 2019 cohorts compared to the 2018 cohort. The majority of the students felt that the topics were well explained in the videos (M = 4.25 ± 0.84) and it was easy to learn from the videos (M = 4.31 ± 0.76). In terms of students perceptions, a strong positive correlations were found between course organisation and motivation and self-efficacy (r = 0.86, p < 0.05); course engagement and motivation and self-efficacy (r = 0.82, p < 0.05). The strongest positive correlation was between course organisation and online engagement (r = 0.95, p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the introduction of multimodal/digital preparation resources (pre-lab videos and online quizzes) was positively received and benefited the students. Students have engaged enthusiastically with these resources and completed the majority of the tasks set. These findings will further expand research directed towards student perception of the lab experience and aid in the adaptation of food science and technology curriculums to accommodate both student and university needs.

Enzymatic acylation of lutein with a series of saturated fatty acid vinyl esters and the thermal stability and anti‐lipid oxidation properties of the acylated derivatives

Lutein was enzymatically acylated with saturated fatty acid vinyl esters of different lengths of carbon chain (C6-C14) under the action of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozyme 435). The acylation reaction was optimized by considering substrate molar ratio, reaction solvent, type of enzyme, and reaction time. The highest yield (88%) was obtained using the Novozyme 435 to catalyze the acylation reaction of lutein and vinyl decanoate (lutein/vinyl decanoate molar ratio of 1/10) for 16 h in methyl tert-butyl ether. Ten lutein esters were synthesized, isolated, and purified, which were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that the acylation of lutein improved its antioxidant capacity in lipid system and thermal stability. Our study extended the potential application of lutein in lipophilic food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.