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JFS Author Guidelines

IFT is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information. 


The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) publishes peer-reviewed scientific journals to provide high-quality research on the science and technology of food. The Journal of Food Science (JFS), available with subscription online, provides results of original research and short interpretive reviews on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of food science and technology. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety (CRFSFS), available online, provides in-depth interpretive reviews in these same areas and in risk analysis. IFT is dedicated to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.

Editor in Chief:

Richard Hartel, PhD, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Scientific Editors: 

Casimir C. Akoh, PhD, University of Georgia, USA
Bradley Bolling, PhD, University of Wisconsin, USA
Mario Estévez, PhD, University of Extremadura Ciencias, Spain
Kristen Gibson, PhD, University of Arkansas, USA
Jung H. Han, PhD, Pulmuone Foods, USA
Joan M. King, PhD, Louisiana State University, USA
Hosahalli Ramaswamy, PhD, McGill University, Canada
Dojin Ryu, PhD, University of Missouri, USA
Beverly Tepper, PhD, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, USA
Kequan (Kevin) Zhou, PhD, Wayne State University, USA

The aim of the Journal of Food Science is to offer scientists an international forum to publish research at the forefront of food science. The Journal of Food Science publishes peer-reviewed articles that cover all aspects of food science, ranging from post-harvest to food, as well as how food science influences health and nutrition. In all cases, the key findings in multidisciplinary articles must address some aspect relevant to the science of food.

Manuscripts may be judged unacceptable due to low impact of the findings or inappropriate technical aspects. Manuscripts with experimental designs that are a simple comparison among treatments, without demonstrating mechanistic advances to the science beyond treatment effects, may be returned without review. To be acceptable, a manuscript, in addition to being of high quality, must be considered important and relevant to advancing the science of food. Research must be on a food, food ingredient, or byproducts of food production. Studies on traditional medicines, pharmaceuticals, or materials not identified or justified as foods are outside the scope of this journal. Furthermore, manuscripts that cover a very narrow topic with only local interest will not be considered.

Authors are requested to suggest a topic area when submitting their manuscript. During review and revision, the significant findings are established, and this may change the most appropriate topic for listing of the published article.

JFS does not accept special issue proposals from outside the editorial board.

Technical Requirements

  • The recommended manuscript length for JFS original research topics is not longer than 7,500 words (including references but excluding tables and figures), but there is not a strict limit. Writing should be concise.
    Concise Reviews and Hypotheses papers should be less than 8,000 words in the body text (excluding references, tables, and figures). Reviews over 8,000 words in the body text should be submitted to Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.
  • Manuscript text must be double-spaced with line numbering.
  • APA Style is preferred, but submissions in other reference styles are allowed.
  • All authors’ CRediT contributions must be added in the manuscript submission form. Each author’s contribution must also comply with the ICMJE criteria for authorship.
  • If the work involves human beings or experimentation on living animals, provide evidence that it was performed in accordance with local ethical guidelines, such as Institutional Review Board [IRB] or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee [IACUC] approval.
  • Authors must disclose conflicts of interest in a “Conflicts of Interest” section at the end of the body text.
  • Submit to JFS at

Performance Attributes

  • Clarivate Journal Impact Factor, 2022: 3.9; Rank: 50/142
  • Scopus CiteScore, 2022: 6.3, 82nd percentile
  • Acceptance rate (2022): 21%
  • Submit-to-1st decision average time: 36 days
  • Submit-to-accept average time: 151 days (includes author revision time)
  • Accept-to-online publication average time: 32 days

Diversity & Inclusion

IFT’s has dedicated itself to three important pillars: diversity, inclusion, and equity, with the goal to leverage all three to advance our mission and the science of food. We are committed to fostering diverse and inclusive editorial boards, reviewer pools, and authorship of IFT’s scientific journals. Learn more about DEI at IFT.

Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science

Covers all aspects of food science, including food science education, identified in the scope of JFS. Reviews should provide in-depth coverage of a narrowly defined topic and embody careful evaluation of all pertinent studies (weaknesses, strengths, and explanation of discrepancies in results among similar studies), so that insightful interpretations, potential future research needs, and conclusions can be presented. Hypothesis manuscripts are appropriate in pioneering areas of research or important areas that are impacted by scientific controversy.

New Horizons in Food Research

This topic is reserved for groundbreaking articles that provide new and unique insights. Examples are manuscripts that provide a new understanding of a classical topic in food science, or those covering cutting edge areas of food science. Manuscripts acceptable for publication but not meeting the criteria of this topic will be transferred to the appropriate topic.

Integrated Food Science

Food science is multidisciplinary by nature and manuscripts may provide comprehensive insight by measuring a range of properties. This topic covers manuscripts that address a specific subject, such as the science of gluten free products, using techniques that span other areas. Key findings are based on a combination of methods (for example, chemistry, sensory, and physical properties) rather than advancing one area of food science. The use of multivariate and other appropriate statistical analysis is recommended.

Food Chemistry

Basic and applied chemical research on food constituents to understand their contribution to food quality, safety, nutrition, and health. The constituents may include those that are naturally present (such as macro- and micro-nutrients, fibers, and phytochemicals) or added (such as additives, preservatives, and functional ingredients) to the food. Acceptable manuscripts must report focused chemical research (chemical reactions, chemical and instrumental analysis, processes, or interactions as related to food) to address a specific and compelling hypothesis or mechanism, or to establish or improve an analytical method. Manuscripts that merely report the chemical composition of food materials, lack in-depth analysis of the chemical nature, or provide no evidence of repeated (replicated) experiments and sound statistical data analysis, are not acceptable.

Food Engineering, Materials Science, and Nanotechnology

Original research in physical phenomena and engineering in food manufacturing (e.g. food processing, waste recovery, numerical modeling) and storage; materials science of food and the materials used to handle, process, and package foods (e.g. synthesis/characterization, relationships between processing and material properties); and, nanotechnology for food applications (e.g., nanoscale detection, nanostructural composition of foods, engineered nanoparticles, and hierarchically assembled nanostructures).

Food Microbiology and Safety

Original research on basic and applied aspects of foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms; food fermentation and preservation; microbial growth and inactivation; and microbial detection methods. Efficacy of new processing technologies for achieving microbial inactivation; molecular basis for microbial inactivation and inhibition through genome sequencing and mapping; molecular technologies to assist in the rapid identification and discrimination of target pathogens; behavior of probiotic bacteria and starter cultures towards bacterial pathogens; microbiological criteria for foods for regulatory and food safety assurance; epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pathogens; novel chemicals, food components, or technologies which promote food safety by achieving microbial/viral/parasite inactivation or inhibition; and mathematical modeling to predict the behavior of pathogen/food interactions.

Sensory and Consumer Sciences

Innovative, basic, and applied research related to human sensory perceptions and the assessment of food products and ingredients that make novel scientific contributions to food science and technology. Topics may include: studies on sensory perceptions and consumer acceptability and preference; modeling of consumer behavior; advances in sensory methodology; comparisons of sensory testing methods and statistical data analysis techniques; individual differences in sensory perceptions; and food assessment including the influence of environment, culture, and genetic factors. Innovative, cross-disciplinary studies focused on ingredient development, microbial safety, chemical composition, instrumental assessments (e.g., e-nose, e-tongue, GC analysis, texture analysis, etc.), packaging, processing, or nutrition (or any combination of these areas) that also include sensory measures are encouraged. Authors should review the Supplemental Instructions on "Guidelines for the Preparation of Manuscripts Reporting Sensory Data" prior to submitting to determine if their study conforms to accepted practices in the discipline, including appropriate study design and statistical analysis, panel size, panelist training, and other features. Manuscripts that use well-established methodologies (such as trained panel evaluations and consumer tests) that do not meet minimum standards in the field will be rejected. The ‘Methods’ section of the manuscript must include a concise statement that the research was performed in accordance with local ethical guidelines, such as approval by an ethics committee and informed consent of panelists prior to participating in the study.

Health, Nutrition, and Food

Original research that integrates food science and technology with applied personal and public health nutrition. Topics may include: studies on nutritional and health impacts of foods and food components using human subjects or appropriate animal or cell models; adaptation and application of technologies that enhance the content and/or biological availability of bioactive food components; mechanistic studies relating food components to gut health; effects of postharvest handling, processing, and storage on the stability and biological activity of bioactive food components; and new method development for analysis of bioactive food ingredients and their metabolites. Manuscripts will be rejected for the following reasons: 1. Study of non-food-based materials (e.g., materials to be used as medicines or drugs, and compounds derivatives from chemical, biochemical, and/or other process), except food processing byproducts such as pomace, fruit peels, or other waste streams in food processing. 2. A lack of or insufficient description of the source and characterization of the test materials, including chemical composition, and the identification and quantification of all individual bioactive components involved. 3. Doses of nutrients or bioactives outside the range typical for human food consumption. 4. Non-oral routes of administration (e.g. direct injection or topical application) of materials.

Toxicology and Chemical Food Safety

Original research papers on occurrence, safety and toxicological evaluation, detoxification, conditions of formation and destruction, analysis, regulatory control, and surveillance of natural and man-made chemical compounds in food including pesticide and veterinary drug residues, environmental contaminants, anti-nutritive compounds, natural toxins, mycotoxins, trace elements, migrants from food packaging, contaminants and toxic components formed during food processing, and food allergens; toxic effects, in animals or humans, of natural or man-made chemical compounds occurring in food and possible adverse health effects created by the interaction of components within the food matrix to scripted or over-the-counter medications or dietary supplements. Manuscripts that do not cover topics pertaining to the occurrence, analysis, formation, safety or toxicological properties of natural and man-made chemical constituents or contaminants in food; lack research focus; or do not improve the current understanding of chemical food safety and toxicology are outside the scope. In addition, papers that do not demonstrate replication of experiments, lack adequate statistical analysis, and do not describe chemical characterization of test materials (particularly for papers dealing with the safety of botanicals and other ingredients), are not acceptable.

Food Science Education

Original research papers related to food science education. Results of original research involving new ideas, new educational tools and/or novel approaches, and assessment of learning techniques in food science education. Concise review articles on recent important developments or trends in food science education are also welcome and should be submitted under the Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science section.  The ‘Methods’ section of the manuscript must include a concise statement that the research was performed in accordance with local ethical guidelines, such as approval by an ethics committee and informed consent of panelists prior to participating in the study.

Authors should review the Supplemental Instructions prior to submitting on specific topic areas. 


Author Criteria

Authorship is restricted to those who meet the ICMJE criteria—those who have:

  • Made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; 
  • AND aided in drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 
  • AND given final approval of the version to be published; 
  • AND agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated & resolved.  

Ghost, guest, honorary, or anonymous authorship is not allowed. Contributors who do not qualify for authorship should be mentioned in the acknowledgments. New authors cannot be added after initial manuscript submission.

Nonhuman technologies such as AI tools cannot qualify as authors. Use of AI tools in the experimental design, data collection, analysis, writing, and/or development of graphics or images must be disclosed in the Methods and/or Acknowledgments, as appropriate, including naming the AI tool and describing how it was used. Refer to the COPE position statement on Authorship and AI tools.


When submitting a manuscript, the submitting author will be asked to enter each co-author’s name and contact information, then select from a drop-down list each author’s contribution(s) to the work using the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) as well as the degree of contribution for each role (Lead, Equal, or Supporting).

From this metadata, an Author Contributions section will be generated automatically during the production process and added to the proof of the manuscript.

Authors may have multiple roles, and the ICMJE authorship criteria still apply—for example, a person whose only contribution to the work is Resources may not qualify as an author but can be thanked in the acknowledgments.

Exclusivity of work

The corresponding author must verify, on behalf of all authors (if more than one), that neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content has been published, accepted for publication, or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure the integrity of all submitted works. For further guidance, see Wiley's Research Integrity and Publication Ethics Guide

The editorial staff will check all manuscripts for plagiarism and improperly-cited content with similarity detection software. If sections of text, figures, or tables are found that are (1) the same as in authors’ previous manuscripts (self-plagiarism) or (2) copied from other manuscripts, they will be considered ethical violations and the manuscript will be rejected and author sanctions considered.

Conflicts of Interest

Each author must disclose any meaningful affiliation or involvement, direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, patents received or pending, royalties, honoraria, expert testimony) in the past 3 years, or longer if readers might perceive that a potential conflict of interest exists. In the interest of transparency, it is better to err on the side of caution and disclose any perceived conflicts. These kinds of financial involvement are fairly common, unavoidable, and generally do not constitute a basis for rejecting a manuscript. A statement of disclosure statement should be included at the end of the manuscript under the heading “Conflicts of Interest”. 

In addition, a separate section “Funding” should list all sources of financial support for the work. Materials support and contributions from individuals who don’t qualify as authors should be acknowledged in the “Acknowledgments” section.

Ethical Issues

If the work involves experimentation on living animals, authors must provide evidence that it was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the researcher's institution, or that the research complied with guidelines described in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" (NIH).

In the case of work involving human beings, evidence must be provided that it was performed with the approval of the authors' Institutional Review Board (IRB) or local ethics committee. Subjects must also provide informed consent.

Authors are expected to adhere to established ethical best practices, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) International Standards for Authors

All submissions to IFT's journals are screened for overlap with other previously-published materials using iThenticate software. Manuscripts with excessive overlap will be rejected outright after review by editorial office staff. All authors are responsible for the content of their manuscript. 

All submitted manuscripts are screened by the Scientific Editor for language, importance, interest to subscribers, substance, appropriateness for the journal, unique topic, and general scientific quality. Those failing to meet current standards are rejected by the Scientific Editor without further review. Those manuscripts meeting these initial standards are sent to an Associate Editor, who assigns referees (also called “reviewers”).

  • JFS uses a review process where author identities are visible to the referees, but referee identities are hidden from the author.
  • Associate Editors strive to obtain three or more referees for each manuscript.
  • In the submission form, authors are asked to recommend the names of two to four experts who are qualified to review the manuscript but who have no personal or professional relationships with the authors and who work at other institutions. Former professors and students should not be suggested as reviewers.
  • For more information about our review policies, see our Reviewer Resources page.
  • It is the policy of JFS to hide the peer-review process of Editorial Board members' own submissions, just as all authors are excluded from seeing identities of reviewers. Alternate editors handle submissions made by Editorial Board members to ensure an unbiased review process.

When the initial review is complete, the Associate Editor will send you the referees’ suggestions along with their suggestions. You are expected to respond in a cover letter to all suggestions either by making appropriate revisions or stating why the suggestions are unreasonable. The Associate Editor will consider your revisions and provide the Scientific Editor with a recommendation to accept, revise, or reject your manuscript. Occasionally a peer-reviewer insists on a re-evaluation. If a second revision of a manuscript is still not satisfactory, it may be rejected. You will be informed by the Scientific Editor of the final decision.

Factors considered when judging the suitability of a manuscript for publication are: Interest readers will have in the subject; Relevance to human foods; Originality, scientific quality (including appropriateness of the experimental design and methods, depth of investigation, proper statistical analysis of the data); Importance and substance of the results, and the thoroughness and accuracy with which the results are interpreted. IFT membership is not a prerequisite for publication.

For Concise Reviews and Hypotheses papers, there is an 8,000-word limit for the body text (excluding references, tables, and figures). Reviews over 8,000 words should be submitted to Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

Traditional (Subscription) Model Publishing Fee
There is no charge for publishing for 
IFT Premier, Student, or Emeritus members. To join IFT to take advantage of this benefit, visit the Membership page

For non-IFT-members and IFT Networking & Engagement members, a traditional-model publication charge of $2,000 per manuscript is assessed prior to publication.

Open Access Publishing Options
Alternatively, authors can publish their article Open Access. The traditional-model non-member fee does not apply to Open Access articles.
Many institutions have Open Access publishing agreements with Wiley that allow authors to use Open Access credits. Check if your institution has a current Open Access agreement here. 
If an institutional agreement does not apply to you, you can purchase Open Access from Wiley at the current APC rate.

If none of the authors is able to join IFT to get the free publishing benefit, authors may request a waiver of publication charges after acceptance of the manuscript, prior to publication. Waivers will be granted to authors based in eligible Research4Life countries.

An author’s ability to pay for page charges is not a factor in consideration of submissions. Waiver requests should be e-mailed to the Editorial Office at [email protected] at the time of acceptance.

An Open Access option is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers upon publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With Open Access, the author, the author’s funding agency, or the author’s institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency’s preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see   

Open Access articles are subject to a Creative Commons license, instead of traditional copyright transfer to IFT. After acceptance, the author can choose the Open Access option in Wiley Author Services when asked to complete copyright information.

This journal accepts artwork submissions for Cover Images. This is an optional service you can use to help increase article exposure and showcase your research. For more information, including artwork guidelines, pricing, and submission details, please visit the Journal Cover Image page. Wiley Editing Services offers a professional cover image design service that creates eye-catching images, ready to be showcased on the journal cover.

In addition, the editors may choose an article to feature from an issue. Featured Articles will be selected based on 1) originality and impact on Food Science and 2) the image used to convey the significant findings. If your manuscript is selected as the Featured Article, staff will work with you to develop an image for the cover at no cost to you. Images do not have to be the same as figures presented in the article. They can be composite works showing several data images and words to concisely convey the message. 

Language, units of measurement, and symbols

Use the English language (American spelling and usage) and the SI system (Système International d’Unités, “International Units”) for measurements and units.


Your manuscript should be consistent with APA style, detailed in the current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Refer to for examples or contact the Editorial Office ([email protected]) with questions. You can submit with references in a different style; in this case, you will be asked to update the references to APA style at the revision stage.


Recommended format can easily be followed using our Manuscript Template (Word).

  • Continuous line-numbering for the entire manuscript is required.
  • Double-space the entire manuscript.
  • Submitted manuscripts must list full names for all authors.
  • Try to restrict individual file sizes to 5Mb maximum. Larger files may be uploaded, but these can lead to download issues for reviewers.

Review manuscripts 

Essential elements are title page, abstract, introduction, main text, conclusions, and references. Summary tables and figures dealing with key points should be used liberally. Use headings and subheadings in the main text as needed to improve the clarity and readability of the presentation.

Topic must be covered in depth and information must be critically evaluated (strengths, weaknesses, discussion of discrepancies in results among similar studies) so that insightful, integrative interpretations and conclusions are achieved. 

Concise Reviews should deal in depth with a narrowly defined topic and be under 8,000 words in the main body text (excluding tables, figures, and references). JFS will not consider bibliometric analyses.

Authors are encouraged to consult with the Editor in Chief ([email protected]) before preparing a review for consideration. 

Hypothesis manuscripts 

Essential elements are title page, abstract, main text, conclusions, and references. 

A statement describing the importance of the topic and the objectives of the presentation should appear in the Introduction. 

Follow this with a logical progression of ideas or concepts that provide a rationale for the hypothesis, and end with conclusions, including recommendations for hypothesis-testing research. 

In the main text, use headings and subheadings as needed to improve clarity and readability of the presentation.

Authors are encouraged to consult with the Scientific Editor before preparing a hypothesis paper for consideration. 

manuscript template in Microsoft® Word is available to help you format your submission.

Refer also to “Supplementary Instructions” if your manuscript deals with one of the following special topics: Sensory Evaluation, Health and Nutrition, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology, Seafood Technology, Fruit & Vegetable Products, or Bioactives.

Title page

Enter name of desired section. The editors may transfer your paper to a more appropriate section if it does not fit the scope of the section you choose.

Enter full title (be concise) Do not use trade names, abbreviations, or acronyms in titles. For search engine optimization, put the most important words at the beginning of your title (e.g., "Alternative Proteins: A Review" will appear higher in search results than "A Critical Review of Popular Alternative Proteins").

Enter names and e-mail addresses of authors and author affiliations

Provide contact information for the corresponding author, including full name, complete mailing address, phone, and e-mail address.

Enter short version of title (less than 40 letters and spaces) for the running header.

Provide previous address(es) of author(s) if research was conducted at a place different from current affiliation.


Enter “ABSTRACT:” followed by abstract text not exceeding 250 words; define all acronyms and abbreviations; do not cite references. State in one paragraph what was done, how it was done, major results, and conclusions.

Practical Application (optional; research articles only)

The Practical Application is used to highlight your paper for exposure to industry and news media outlets, and may make information about your research more widely known to the public.

Enter “Practical Application:” followed by a brief description, in plain language, of the potential industrial or consumer application of the research presented in your paper. Keep the description under 100 words, about 1 to 3 sentences, and in language non-scientists can easily understand. The brief should describe probable uses for your work, whether for direct commercial application, to aid in further research efforts, or for consumer impact. Do not make unreasonable claims that cannot be derived from the work described in the paper.

1 Introduction

Enter introductory text; review pertinent work; cite key references; explain the importance of the topic and the objectives of your work.

2 Materials and Methods

Enter text in sufficient detail so work can be repeated. Describe new methods in detail; accepted methods briefly with references. Use subheadings as needed for clarity.

Trade names should be avoided in defining products whenever possible. If use of a trade name cannot be avoided, the trade names of other like products also should be mentioned. The first use of a trade name should be followed by the superscript symbol™ or ® and the owner’s name, city, state/province, and country in parenthesis. If a product trade name is used, it is imperative that the product be described in sufficient detail so that relationships between product composition and results achieved are evident.

The mention of critical, especially novel, supplies and pieces of equipment should be followed, in parenthesis, by name of manufacturer or provider, and on the first mention only, city, state/province, and country (such as Sigma-Aldrich Corp., St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A.).

Abbreviations and acronyms. At first use in the text, use full length form followed by the acronym in parentheses. Use only the acronym for subsequent mentions.

Statistical analysis. If variation within a treatment (coefficient of variation—the standard deviation divided by the mean) is less than 10% and the difference among treatment means is greater than 3 standard deviations, it is not necessary to conduct a statistical analysis. If the data do not meet these criteria, appropriate statistical analysis must be conducted and reported.

For experimental design, under normal circumstances, we require a minimum of three replicates of independent laboratory observations (experiments), unless otherwise proven unnecessary or impossible. 

If the work involves experimentation on living animals, authors must provide evidence that it was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the researcher's institution, or that the research complied with guidelines described in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" (NIH). Include a statement about the ethical guidelines approval when you first describe the animal study. 

Note: JFS does not require compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, but there is a question about compliance in the submission form. If the study does not comply with ARRIVE, mark “No” for the question and give a brief statement about IACUC approval. For more details, see the “Health and Nutrition” section in our supplementary author instructions.

In the case of work involving human beings, evidence must be provided that it was performed with the approval of the authors' Institutional Review Board (IRB) or local ethics committee. Subjects must also provide informed consent. Include a statement about IRB approval under a subheader such as "Subjects" or "Sensory panel".

3 Results and Discussion

Present and discuss results concisely, using figures and tables as needed. Do not present the same information in both figures and tables. Compare results to those previously reported and clearly indicate what new information is contributed by the present study.

4 Conclusions

State conclusions (not a summary or continuing discussion) briefly in one paragraph, without references.


Nomenclature (if needed)

Enter a list of abbreviations used in the manuscript and their definitions.

Acknowledgments (optional)

List funding information and the names of contributors who are not authors, if any.

Conflicts of Interest (required)

Each author must disclose any meaningful affiliation or involvement, direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, grants, patents received or pending, royalties, honoraria, expert testimony) in the past 3 years, or longer if readers might perceive that a potential conflict of interest exists. In the interest of transparency, it is better to err on the side of caution and disclose any perceived conflicts. 

Data Availability (if applicable)

If you have deposited an original dataset to a repository, link to it in a brief statement here.

Data Sharing Policy

Authors are encouraged to share the data and other artifacts supporting the results in the paper by archiving it in an appropriate public repository. Authors should include a data accessibility statement, including a link to the dataset under an additional subhead, entitled "Data Availability", after the Conclusions section. Visit or to help identify registered and certified data repositories relevant to your research.

If the data has not been archived in a public repository, to assist in the review process, the SE, AE, or reviewer may request the author to submit the original data for review.


Alphabetically list only those references cited in the text. Required format is described below under the section, "Preparing Your Manuscript: References"


Enter one table per page after the references. Be sure you have cited each table within the text.

Enter a short descriptive caption at the top of each table, preceded by an identifying Arabic numeral.

Columns and their headings are normally (but not always) used to display the dependent variable(s) being presented in the table. Footnotes should be identified by lowercase letters or numbers (e.g., a, b, c; 1, 2, 3) appearing as superscripts in the body of the table and preceding the footnote below the table. The same data should not appear in both tables and figures.

All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account.

Tables including a large amount of data with few significant differences should instead be described in a sentence along with “(data not shown)”

Figures (graphs, charts, photographs, and other illustrations)

Also see IFT Journals Graphics Guide (PDF)

General instructions

Enter one figure per page after the tables (if any). Be sure you have cited each figure within the text.

Enter the figure number and descriptive caption at the bottom of each figure.

You are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted figures. Proof of permission to reproduce is required.

Submit your figures at least twice the size they will appear when published at 300 dots per inch (dpi) or greater.

Be sure to use lettering, data lines, and symbols sufficiently large and thick to be clearly legible when the figure is reduced to the normal published size.

All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account.

Avoid redundancy between the figure caption and information in the figure.

Special instructions for graphs

Keep as simple as possible.

Dependent variable should be presented on the vertical axis (y or ordinate).

Independent variable should be presented on the horizontal axis (x or abscissa).

The label for each axis should be parallel to, and centered on, the axis; that is, the label for the vertical axis should be rotated 90° counterclockwise from normal.

Axis labels should be followed by the units of measurement in parentheses, with abbreviations shown elsewhere in these Instructions.

Range of values presented on each axis should be no larger than the range of values being presented.

All data reported in numerical form must take significant figures into account.

If data lines are close together and/or intersect, do not present more than 4 lines per figure.

If data lines are well separated and few or none intersect, a maximum of about 8 lines per figure may be entered.

Identify lines directly, if feasible. If not, enter key box at a blank area inside the graph.

Avoid simultaneous use of a new symbol and a new line style.

Avoid, if possible, presenting more than 8 data bars per figure.

Avoid using shades of gray on bars or lines.

Appendices, data sets, and supplemental materials (if needed)

Appendix examples are complicated calculations or detailed nomenclature.

Supplemental material will be published online only and will be published exactly as you provide it, with no copyediting. Examples include large data sets or additional tables/figures that will be valuable to readers but are ancillary to the published data.

Multimedia (audio, video, and animation) files demonstrating important information relevant to the article can be published as supplemental material.

The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains entirely with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect.

Description of the Experimental Design and Basic Data Presentation

In all studies, the conditions to obtain the data must be comprehensively described. The experimental design (also called design of experiments) should be described and can include a completely randomized design, mixture design, 2k/3k designs, and many others. In the case that more than one factor is studied, the factors should be clearly stated and proper statistical methods should be applied (see below).

A Word About Replication

  • The number of true replicates obtained must be reported. Systematic analysis in triplicate from a single sample is not considered a true replicate. A true replicate is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. For instance, in the extraction of resveratrol from purple grape skin, one should conduct the extraction procedure at least 3 times so the variability (i.e., standard deviation) can be calculated.
  • For quantitative data analysis, the general goal is 3 true replicates; however, experimental limitations may limit it to two true replications. The use of 2 rather than 3 or more replications must be justified by the authors.
  • Products or analyses made in a short period of time (or in the same batch) for the same product reflect the variance of the MEASUREMENT and not the EXPERIMENT. Repeated sampling from the same batch or analyte (e.g. three GC runs on the same sample) are considered pseudo-replicates, not true replicates.

Data Presentation - Graphs and Tables

Experimental data should be clearly summarized in graphs and tables.  

  • Mean values must be reported and accompanied by some measure of variability such as standard deviation (SD), standard error of the mean (SEM), or 95% confidence interval, as appropriate. Tables and figures without some measure of dispersion are not acceptable. One example of a data table is given below:

    Table 1: Resveratrol content in grape skins from different varieties

    Grape variety

    Resveratrol (mg/100 g)

    Pinot Noir

    0.65 ± 0.10c


    1.04 ± 0.09b


    1.06 ± 0.11b

    Cabernet Sauvignon

    1.73 ± 0.13a

    p-value (homoscedasticity)


    p-value (ANOVA)


    Note: different superscript letters represent different results (p<0.05)

  • Differences between samples/treatments should be confirmed (or refuted) using inferential statistics (see below).Statistically significant differences should be indicated in tables and figures with superscript letters or markers (e.g, *, +, etc.), as appropriate.
  • The use of significant digits should be in-line with the precision of the instrument or assay used to generate the data. For instance, if a spectrophotometric, fluorimeter, HPLC, GC-MS/FID is used, results should be given as x.yy to indicate what can be accomplished by the instruments but not beyond. Reporting x.yyy instead of x.yy shows a very high level of precision that might not be justified.

Statistical Analysis

All statistical methods used should be described in detail, including the test name, α-value to reject the null hypothesis and the software used.

Inferential statistical methods are used to assess differences between samples (e.g., T-tests and analysis of variance). Authors should select the α-value to reject the null hypothesis in any inferential test. Either α<0.05 or α<0.01 are usually used in food science and technology.

Two conditions should be met to conduct valid T-tests (where only 2 samples are compared) and ANOVA (3 or more samples are compared). Statistical tests should only be applied if the data are NORMALLY DISTRIBUTED with EQUAL VARIANCES (homoscedasticity).

  • Common tests for normal distributions include the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S) and Shapiro-Wilk (S-W) test.If the normality test is NOT significant, (p-value > 0.05) then the data are normally distributed, and the statistical test can proceed. If data are not normally distributed, then a data transformation (e.g., log or square-root transformation) may be appropriate to attain normality.See below for guidance.
    • If data in each batch is large (n ≥ 10), authors should demonstrate the data follow the normal distribution by using an adherence test, such as Kolmogorov or Shapiro-Wilk test.
  • Authors should check for equality of variances, i.e., homoscedasticity. The homoscedasticity test will prove if the variances of two data distributions (e.g., Sample A and Sample B) are similar. For this purpose, Barttlet, Hartley, Cochran, Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests can be used.

More information on these methods that can be found here:

Granato, D., Calado, V., & Jarvis, B. (2014). Observations on the use of statistical methods in Food Science and Technology. Food Research International, 55, 137-145.


  • For 2 samples (or treatments), homoscedasticity should be assessed using the F- test, and comparison of the means should be done using the Student’s T-test for paired or unpaired samples.
  • Non-parametric alternatives for the Student’s T-test should be used when data do not follow a normal distribution.The Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test are two common examples.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

  • Analysis of variance is used when three or more samples are being compared.
  • Depending on the design of the experiment, many ANOVA procedures can be applied, such as one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, n-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. The selection of the proper ANOVA procedure should be described in the methodology. Note that when the same treatment is examined repeatedly (e.g., a shelf-life study where a sample(s) are measured at timed intervals), repeated measures ANOVA or a mixed-models approach should be used.
  • Data analysis using ANOVA is a two-step process. The ANOVA calculation(the first step) is a global test – it determines if there are any significant differences among the treatments or samples based on the F-statistic and p-value.If significant differences are found by ANOVA, then a post-hoc test is used (the second step) to determine specifically which sample means are different from other sample means.Tukey’s, Duncan’s, Bonferroni’s, and Fisher’s tests are common examples of post-hoc tests.
  • REPORTING SIGNIFICANCE: p-values should be reported (in the text, tables or figures, asappropriate) when samples are declared statistically different. Some examples:

    -sample A had a higher (p<0.03) protein content than sample B;

    -sample A did not differ significantly (p=0.25) in protein content compared to sample B.

Correlation Analysis

  • Correlational analysis describes the relationship between two sets of data.The strength of the association is described by the correlation coefficient (r-value) and the associated p-value. Both criteria should be reported. Pearson’s correlation coefficients should only be used when there are at least 5 data points (e.g., replications or mean values) in each data set. For example, 6 cheeses were analyzed for their fat content and instrumental color (parameters L*, a* and b*) with the goal of correlating the fat content with color. Pearson’s correlation coefficients can be calculated for these data as there are 6 data points (mean values from the analyses) for each measured response. If this criterion is not met (less than 5 data points for each food property), a nonparametric test should be used, e.g., Spearman’s rank correlation. One example of a table used for correlation analysis can be found in Table 2.

    Table 2: Experimental results (mean values) used to estimate the correlation between method A and method B for a certain food property.

    Experimental data

    Method A

    Method B

    result 1

    mean value 1

    mean value 1

    result 2

    mean value 2

    mean value 2

    result 3

    mean value 3

    mean value 3

    result 4

    mean value 4

    mean value 4

    result 5

    mean value 5

    mean value 5

    result n

    mean value n

    mean value n

Regression Analysis and optimization of processes and products

  • Regression analysis examines the ability of a set of independent variables to predict an outcome (dependent variable). Linear regression and multiple linear regression are the most common techniques used in food science. Measures of fit of the model must be reported such as the determination coefficient (R2), adjusted R2, p-value, and residual analysis based on inferential testing (e.g., normality). For nonlinear regression analysis, other measures of fit such as root mean square error (RMSE), should be reported. R2 should not be reported as an indicator of model fitting for nonlinear regression.
  • Response Surface Methodology (RSM) utilizes multiple regression analysis to develop polynomial models that describe complex data sets. The statistical quality of the model should be clearly described in both the methodology and the results. Figures of merit should be included in the results and substantially discussed both in statistical/mathematical and practical points of view. Please see the example below:

    Ferreira, S. L. C., Bruns, R. E., da Silva, E. G. P., dos Santos, W. N. L., Quintella, C. M., David, J. M., de Andrade, J. B., Breitkreitz, M. C., Jardim, I. C. S. F., & Neto, B. B. (2007). Statistical designs and response surface techniques for the optimization of chromatographic systems. Journal of Chromatography A, 1158(1-2), 2–14.

  • For studies reporting the optimization of processes and products using RSM, the optimization procedure, number of iteractions and type of approach used to find the best solution should be clerarly described. In addition, authors are requested to validate the optimization procedure by using at least one external combination of factors not tested in the origal design of experiment. Thus, the accuracy of the generated model and optimization procedure can be evaluated for their prediction ability.

Other Multivariate Techniques

There are many multivariate methods to choose from including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA), Correspondence Analysis and others. The objective of these methods is to obtain an understanding of complex datasets that are composed of many, highly correlated variables.  For example, PCA seeks to identify the underlying or latent variables that describe a set of samples or phenomena that may not be obvious using univariate statistics (i.e., analyzing 1 variable at a time).

  • In all cases, multivariate models should be accompanied by appropriate measures of fit.  For example, in PCA, the eigenvalue cut-off should be reported.  Factor loadings and the percentage of variance explained by each factor in the model should be reported in a table. See example below:

    Table 3: PCA factor loadings and percentage of variance explained for consumer attitudes towards corn chips (variables in boldface load uniquely on a factor)


    Factor 1

    Factor 2

    Factor 3


    Buying intent





    Overall liking










    Corn flavor










    Healthiness of chip





    Reduced-fat food use





    Low-fat milk use





    Chip purchase freq.















    Variance explained


















    From: Tepper, B. J. & Trail, A. C. (1998). Taste or health: A study on consumer acceptance of corn chips. Food Quality & Preference, 9, 267-272.

Manuscripts must follow the name-year reference format specified in APA style, detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition, 2020. Refer to for examples. Cite only necessary publications and use primary rather than secondary references when possible. It is acceptable to cite work that is “forthcoming” (that is, accepted but not yet published) with the pertinent year and, if available, the DOI. Works that are “submitted” and under review are not to be cited. Use of reference management software such as EndNote is highly recommended. 

In text references 

When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Otherwise, place both the name and the year in parentheses, separated by a comma. If the work has two authors, cite with both names. If the work has three or more authors, always cite with the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons. 

Wlodkowski (2008) showed that…
…was shown (Wlodkowski, 2008). 
Walker and Allen (2004) demonstrated… 
…was demonstrated (Walker & Allen, 2004). 
Liu, Jia, Wu, and Wang (2010) or (Liu, Jia, Wu, & Wang, 2010) [1st mention, <6 authors]; Liu et al. (2010) [subsequent mentions] 
Pei et al. (2015) [3 or more authors, always cite with “et al.”] 
… studies (Lucci & Mazzafera, 2009, 2011) focused… 
… work (Dawson, 1999; Briggs, 2004) demonstrated… 

In reference section 

List only references cited in the text. List references alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). References must be complete, containing up to 20 author's surnames and initials and all relevant publication data, including DOI whenever possible. In the case of references to papers presented at a meeting, the full title of the paper, when and where it was presented, and the name of the sponsoring society must be given. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, please refer to or contact the Editorial Office

Wlodkowski, R. J. (2008). Enhancing adult motivation to learn (3rd ed). Jossey-Bass John Wiley & Sons. 

Yore, L. D. (2004). Why do future scientists need to study the language arts? In E. W. Saul (Ed.), Crossing borders in literacy and science instruction: Perspectives on theory and practice (pp. 71–94).  International Reading Association. 
Bhatt, T., Gooch, M., Dent, B., & Sylvia, G. (2017). Implementing interoperability in the seafood industry: learning from experiences in other sectors. Journal of Food Science, 82(S1), A22–A44. 

Pei, L., Ou, Y., Yu, W., Fan, Y., Huang, Y., Lim, J, . . . Lai, K. (2015). Au-Ag core-shell nanospheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of Sudan I and Sudan II in chili powder. Journal of Nanomaterials, 16, 215-221. 

Abrams, E. M., & Gerstner, T. V. (2015). Allergy to cooked, but not raw, peas: A case series and review. Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology. Advance online publication. 

Comments, observations, different perspectives, and suggestions for improving concepts and techniques of previously published manuscripts are welcome and accepted. Letters should be submitted through Research Exchange (ReX) at Choose the article type, "Letter". The Editor in Chief will consider letter submissions for potential publication.

Getting started 

New submissions should be made via the Research Exchange (ReX) portal:

For technical help with the submission system, please review our FAQs or contact [email protected].

Create an account or use your Wiley Researcher ID to log in. Your default login ID is your e-mail address.

From here, you can create new submissions and revisions and check the status of submissions in progress across all journals on the ReX platform. 

Choosing a manuscript type and topic

If your article is a review under 8,000 words, select "Review Article". Later, when asked to choose the topic, select "Concise Reviews and Hypotheses in Food Science". 

If your article is a report on original research, select "Research Article". Later, when asked to choose the topic, select the most appropriate research topic (New Horizons in Food Research; Integrated Food Science; Food Chemistry; Food Engineering, Materials Science, and Nanotechnology; Food Microbiology and Safety; Sensory and Consumer Sciences; Health, Nutrition, and Food; Toxicology and Chemical Food Safety; or Food Science Education). 


Completing submission 

Follow the instructions in each step of the Progress Board. When you upload your manuscript file(s), ReX uses AI to pull in your title, authors, and affiliations and will walk you through each step.

You must add all co-authors and their current, valid e-mail addresses. You will not be able to add co-authors at the revision stage, so be sure to include all co-authors when creating the original submission.

Figures (with captions) and tables (with captions) should appear at the end, after the references. If your figures and tables are in separate files from the main body text, upload them after the body text file. 

If you are using any content from a previously-published work, upload proof of permission to re-use that content. Other supplemental or informational files can also be uploaded.

When prompted to do so, please provide the names, titles, and contact information (e-mail addresses and affiliations) for at least 2 and up to 4 individuals you consider appropriate referees for your manuscript. Nonpreferred referees may also be named. 

Checking on the status of your manuscript 

During the review process, the submitting author may track the progress of the manuscript through the ReX dashboard.

After acceptance, the corresponding author will be asked to complete copyright transfer or licensing through Wiley Author Services. If publishing traditional model, copyright will be transferred to IFT. If publishing Open Access, choose the appropriate Creative Commons license type CC-BY, CC-BY-NC-ND, etc.), which may be directed by the funder or institution.

For detailed licensing information, including instructions for Multiple Ownership copyright, see

Reproduction of all or any significant portion of an IFT publication is prohibited unless permission is received from IFT. Authors have the right to reproduce portions of their own papers with proper acknowledgment and retain the right to any patentable subject material that might be contained therein. Authors can obtain permission online through Rightslink, which is an automated online permissions service available 24 hours/day. You can do so by locating the article you want to reuse and clicking on the “Request Permissions” link under the “Article Tools” menu on the abstract page.

After acceptance, the corresponding author will receive further information on copyright transfer and tracking production of your paper through Wiley Author Services. You will also be asked to provide an IFT member number for one of the co-authors if you would like to publish at no charge (see Publication Charges section above).

We will use the accepted files for production. If you need to make final edits suggested by the editor, please e-mail a final file as soon as possible to [email protected], or you may make those edits at the proofing stage.

A few weeks after production of your manuscript begins, you will receive a PDF proof via e-mail so you can make any final minor corrections. You are responsible for all statements appearing in the page proof. If you are not available to review the page proof, you should authorize someone else to carefully study the page proof for errors.


Post-Publication Corrections

After publication, if a mistake is noticed, authors may issue corrigenda to fix errors made by the authors or request that the journal issue an erratum to correct errors made during the production process.

In cases where authors wish to change their name following publication, Wiley will update and republish the paper and redeliver the updated metadata to indexing services. Our editorial and production teams will use discretion in recognizing that name changes may be of a sensitive and private nature for various reasons including (but not limited to) alignment with gender identity, or as a result of marriage, divorce, or religious conversion. Accordingly, to protect the author’s privacy, we will not publish a correction notice to the paper, and we will not notify co-authors of the change. Authors should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with their name change request.

JFS works together with Wiley’s Open Access Journal, Food Science & Nutrition, to enable rapid publication of good quality research that is unable to be accepted for publication by our journal. Authors will be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editor of Food Science & Nutrition. Authors will not need to reformat or rewrite their manuscript at this stage, and publication decisions will be made a short time after the transfer takes place. The Editor of Food Science & Nutrition will accept submissions that report well-conducted research which reaches the standard acceptable for publication. Food Science & Nutrition is a Wiley Open Access journal and article publication fees apply. For more information, please go to

To appeal a decision by the Scientific Editor or report problems related to the review process or published journal, please contact the Editor in Chief, Richard Hartel, or the Editorial Office ([email protected]).


Upon publication, the corresponding author will be given access to a PDF copy of the final article and a unique sharing link to share free access to the article with colleagues via Wiley Author Services.

Conference Papers: Right of First Refusal

If the paper has been presented at a meeting of an organization other than IFT, the author must certify that he/she has freedom to offer it to IFT for publication. Likewise, if an author presents at IFT FIRST and would like to publish it in a non-IFT journal, permission must be granted by IFT (contact [email protected]).

Permissions to Re-use Content from a Published Article

To request permissions to re-use content such as a figure or table from an article published in JFS, go to the published article online at and click on "Request Permissions" in the table of contents listing or, within the article page, click on "Tools > Request Permissions".

If you encounter difficulties in submitting your manuscript or have any other queries, contact the editorial office at [email protected] or by phone at: +1.312.806.8088.

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