Natural bacteriophages or phages are the most-abundant microorganisms in our environment and are present in high numbers in water and foods of various origins. Phages are bacteria-specific—each particular phage is specific for a particular bacterium and is unable to attach to other bacteria. They are harmless to humans, animals, and plants. Over countless millennia, humans have been routinely exposed to phages at high levels through food, water, and the environment, without adverse effect. In ce…

TEM of bacteriophage P2 showing the typical head tail morphology specific to bacteriophages.

Figure 3. Schematic representation of a millionth of a square cm on which a single bacterial cell is situated. The presence of the 10 phages indicates that this surface was treated with 107PFU/cm2.

Figure 4. Reduction of bacteria by phages at varying concentrations. Salmon was artificially contaminated and treated with phages. This illustrates the need to apply a critical amount of phages.

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