Regulation of food intake is a complex system that involves numerous physiological signals or hormones from the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The hypothalamus and brainstem are principal targets of gastrointestinal signals—either directly or via the vagus nerve. Examples of these signals include peptide YY3-36, oxyntomodulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and cholesystokinin (Chaudhri et al., 2008). Within the hypothalamus, these signals inhibit or increase food intake. Communication between …

Premium Content
You've reached your monthly limit of free articles.
Access Food Technology
Log in Subscribe