Perceiving aroma of dairy products
Understanding what influences in-mouth aroma release is important to control aroma perception, report scientists at the Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.

They examined how aroma retention, release, and perception were affected by the following: food composition and structure; variations in how people chew and their saliva rate and composition; and interactions between food products and people. Additionally, they discussed several instrumental and sensory methodologies used to study aromatexture interactions in dairy products, concentrating on the relationship between in vivo aroma release and perception in dairy products. This relationship depends on the type of texture relative to physiochemical mechanisms and cognitive mechanisms, wrote the researchers in the review article.

The article, “Aroma Perception in Dairy Products: The Roles of Texture, Aroma Release and Consumer Physiology,” appeared online early in Flavour and Fragrance Journal, doi: 10.1002/ffj.2036.

FDA seeks comments on labeling proposals
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently announced that the public can comment on two proposed calorie labeling regulations—one for menus and menu boards in restaurants and the other for vending machines—that FDA issued on April 1, 2011.

Chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name would be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Movie theaters, airplanes, bowling alleys, and other establishments that do not sell food as a primary purpose would be exempt from the rule. Vending machine operators who own or operate 20 or more vending machines would need to post calorie information for the food sold in vending machines unless the information is already visible on the individual packages of the food.

Visit to submit a comment on the proposed rule for menu labeling (docket number FDA-2011-F-0172, deadline June 6, 2011) and for vending machines (docket number FDA-2011-F-0171, deadline July 5, 2011), or for information on how to submit a comment by mail.

Coating reduces mold
A guar gum edible coating incorporated with potassium sorbate was more effective at inhibiting spoilage molds for up to 20 days than coatings made from pea starch or potato starch, reported researchers at the University of Jordan, Amman, and Washington State University.

More specifically, the guar gum–potassium sorbate coating reduced spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 days of storage at 4°C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. The results also showed that the mold species had different resistances to potassium sorbate and that the three coatings, in general, were more effective at inhibiting molds on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers.

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The study, “Antifungal Effectiveness of Potassium Sorbate Incorporated in Edible Coatings Against Spoilage Molds of Apples, Cucumbers, and Tomatoes during Refrigerated Storage,” appeared online early in Journal of Food Science, doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02059.x.

Analyzing protein’s metabolic effects
Proteins from various sources affect energy metabolism, satiety, and glucose control in humans differently, which means these proteins could be used in products developed for personalized nutrition, reported researchers at the Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.

They fed three protein-rich meals of equal caloric content (50% protein from whey, casein, and soy with 40% carbohydrate and 10% fat) and one high-carbohydrate meal (95% carbohydrate) to healthy adults. They measured the energy expenditure, thermic effect, glycemic response, and appetite sensations before and after the subjects consumed the four different meals. Consuming protein-rich meals produced a greater energy expenditure and thermic effect than consuming the high-carbohydrate meal. More specifically, the results showed that the effects of whey were significantly greater than casein and soy. The researchers observed significantly lowered peak glycemia after consumption of the protein-rich meals. Based on the results of this study, the researchers plan to examine the acute and long-term health benefits of proprietary protein sources.

The study, “Protein Choices Targeting Thermogenesis and Metabolism,” appeared online early in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi: 10.3945/ ajcn.110.005850.

Measuring carcinogens in meat
Hot dogs, pepperoni, and deli meats contain very few carcinogenic compounds compared to other ready-to-eat meat products, according to researchers at Kansas State University, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service.

They analyzed the levels of five different types of heterocyclic amines (ng/g) in beef hot dogs, beef–pork–turkey hot dogs, deli roast beef, deli ham, deli turkey, fully cooked bacon, pepperoni, and rotisserie chicken. They heated the hot dogs and bacon in the microwave, cooked the pepperoni on a pizza in the oven or microwave, and used the chicken and deli meat as is.

The results showed that pepperoni had the least amounts of heterocyclic amines (0.05 ng/g), followed by hot dogs (0.5 ng/g) and deli meat (0.5 ng/g). The meats that had the highest levels were fully cooked bacon (1.1 ng/g) and rotisserie chicken meat (1.9 ng/g). The rotisserie chicken skin had heterocyclic amine levels of 16.3 ng/g, and the researchers said that this is because heterocyclic amine levels tend to increase as moisture decreases. Chicken skin has more fat and protein and less moisture. They said that the cooking conditions and ingredients affected the levels of heterocyclic amines and that consuming the ready-to-eat meat products contributed to heterocyclic amine intake minimally. The research was supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service with the USDA, the American Meat Institute Foundation, and the National Pork Board Checkoff.

The study, “Heterocyclic Amine Content in Commercial Ready to Eat Meat Products,” appeared online early in Meat Science, doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.12.025.

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Studying blue cheese flavor
Determining exactly what gives blue cheese its characteristic taste, texture, and aroma may lead to better quality and consistency, said researchers at the University of Nottingham and the University of Northhampton.

The researchers want to learn how microorganisms, specifically the ones that develop during ripening, function. Previous research has shown that these microorganisms contribute to the flavor properties of the cheese, enhance the aroma characteristics, or prevent the blue veins from developing. They hope to identify what microorganisms contribute to flavor development and blue vein formation and how they do this.

The researchers received a grant from the Food and Drink iNet to conduct the research.

Profiling pressure during retort
Flexible packages can deform or rupture during retort processing if the increasing internal pressure is not controlled or counterbalanced with external retort pressure. Researchers with the University of Florida and Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Chile, have outlined methods for determining the exact retort pressure profile to prevent this from occurring during retort processing.

In addition, the researchers developed mathematical models to predict these pressure profiles in response to known internal temperature and initial/boundary conditions for simple model food systems (pure water and aqueous saline and sucrose solutions) and for food of complex composition (green beans in water and sweet peas in water).

The details of the pressure profiles and the specifics of the mathematical models are discussed in the study, “Measuring and Predicting Head Space Pressure during Retorting of Thermally Processed Foods,” which appeared online early in Journal of Food Science, doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02075.x.

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What’s new with food companies
• Anheuser-Busch Co. Inc.
has acquired Goose Island. Goose Island beer will continue to be produced at its brewery in Chicago, Ill.

• Biothera has named XSTO Solutions the eastern U.S. distributor of its immune-enhancing ingredients.

• Cargill plans to build a corn processing plant in Brazil.

• Cereal Partners Worldwide, a joint venture of Nestlé and General Mills, has opened a research and development center in Orbe, Switzerland.

The Safe Quality Food Institute has re-certified Clabber Girl Corp.

• DSM recently introduced its new company brand, Bright Science. Brighter Living™. Also, its Fruitflow® water-soluble tomato concentrate won the Nutraward for Best New Ingredient at the Nutracon conference in March 2011.

• Frutarom has acquired East Anglian Food Ingredients Ltd.

• The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a “no questions” letter on GRAS status of Functional Technologies’ hydrogen sulfide-reducing yeast.

The U.S. Army’s Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center has contracted NovaSterilis to provide Natick with supercritical carbon dioxide equipment for its Combat Feeding Program.

• Trace Minerals Research has added a new powder-fill machine to its manufacturing facility and has expanded its corporate offices.

• Vitiva and Savannah Fine Chemicals have partnered to promote Vitiva’s Oxidation Management System rosemary-based ingredient portfolio.

• The Safe Quality Food Institute has awarded Wornick Foods SQF 2000–Level 3 Certification. 


Karen Nachay,
Associate Editor
[email protected]