Donald Pszczola

Donald E. Pszczola

In a recent interview appearing in the publication, Advertising Age (February 10, 2003), General Mills CEO Steve Sanger was quoted as saying, “What we need to do . . . is innovate in our categories consistently and bring consumers things that add value for them that they didn’t have before . . . that’s the way we grow. And, actually, new products are really not the first place we start with that. We start with keeping our established brands healthy and growing . . . because that’s really the key to overall profitability. . . . Totally new brands have the lowest odds of success and are the least frequent means of innovation for us and every other food manufacturer.”

Flavors, colors, aromas, textural properties, and health benefits can all be delivered by innovative ingredient systems.

The above remark intrigued me. I thought about it for a while, especially in context to this month’s Ingredients section, and I began to realize that it might have particular relevance to the topic at hand—delivery systems and the benefits they provide.

Whether these systems deliver flavor, color, nutraceutical benefits, texture properties, convenience, or some other functional or health attribute, the key is that they add value—the kind of value that can enhance existing products and the kind of value that Sanger was referring to in his remarks. I’m not sure if Sanger was necessarily thinking about delivery systems when he provided his thoughts, but certainly these kinds of ingredients help deliver the right message.

The above quote also helped put some things into perspective—like cleaning out the closet sometimes does. For example, on occasion, I will hear someone say (casually or not) that there is nothing new in the food industry or in a particular segment of the food industry or in the development of food ingredients that supply this industry. Having covered ingredients for more than 16 years, I hope I’m not in a state of denial when I say that I disagree with this view. Again, I point to the fact that delivery systems, by making things happen, can transform an existing product (a stalwart brand, as Sanger would put it), providing the consumer with a benefit that may not have been available in the past. And, of course, delivery systems can play an equally important role in the development of future products and whether these products will be successful or not in the marketplace.

On the other side of the spectrum, sometimes I will encounter an individual who, instead of insisting that there is nothing new going on, will say that all I do is write about new things, as if I’m some kind of Andy Warhol among food editors. Interestingly, that view isn’t quite right either. Again, this month’s topic is a good case in point. Many of the delivery systems that we will be discussing in this Ingredients section have been established for a while. And, of course, the concept of delivery systems hasn’t really changed that dramatically, especially on one very important point. An effective delivery system has a specific function—like the U.S. Postal Service, it delivers. If it doesn’t do that, then it probably isn’t a delivery system.

Not surprisingly, we will be seeing a wide range of delivery systems in this article. Many of them have been developed for flavors. As you know, of course, flavors can be delivered through a variety of means: they may be imparted by ingredients such as fruits, spices, and nuts; or by flavors in a variety of forms including liquids or powders; or they may be provided by systems based on cereal, carbohydrate, fats, and other components. In addition to flavor, a variety of systems have been developed to deliver color, health components, and other attributes as well.

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Some of these delivery systems are new concepts, trying to move “outside the box,” if you will. Some of them are established systems that have been modified to meet a specific need or solve a particular problem. Some of them have been combined with other less traditional ingredients. Some of them have had application in the pharmaceutical industry, but increasingly, with the emphasis on nutraceuticals, may have relevance in the manufacture of health-promoting foods.

Delivery systems can offer food manufacturers a number of advantages. They can stabilize ingredients; mask odor or taste in a food product; control color; provide effective nutrient delivery; extend shelf life; protect core substances from damaging effects of the environment; minimize undesirable interactions with other ingredients; and alleviate processing challenges.

Of course, when we think about delivery systems, most likely “encapsulation” or “microencapsulation” immediately comes to mind. According to a leading supplier of encapsulated ingredients, Balchem Encapsulates, microencapsulation can be defined as a process where a core ingredient is coated or shelled within a second material for controlled release and protection of the active ingredient against the surrounding environment. Coating types include a variety of polymers, carbohydrates, fats, or waxes. A coating material is designed to stabilize the core material and protect it from release until appropriate conditions are present to trigger release. The material should also allow release under the specific conditions needed, based on the product application.

In addition to microencapsulation, other delivery systems might include coatings; premixes; novel packaging concepts ranging from films to systems that release an ingredient directly into the finished product; injection technologies; particulates of various sizes and shapes; and ingredients available in a variety of forms, including powders, liquids, crystals, compressed tablets, nuggets, and so on.

To broaden—or perhaps confuse— the definition of delivery systems even more, the food products themselves are sometimes considered delivery systems. For example, a cereal, in addition to being perceived as a breakfast food, a dry snack, or an ingredient for baked goods or confections, may be promoted as a delivery system, providing the consumer with a variety of important vitamins and minerals, as well as flavors, colors, and textures. Although this is probably more of a marketing strategy, it certainly brings us back full circle—to the finished product itself, made up of all those ingredients that contributed their benefits.

And if we consider the finished food as a delivery system, then we may have to consider all individual ingredients in some way as delivery systems, providing specific benefits to the formulation. Of course, if we took such a broad definition, then this article would be all-encompassing, and it would join the ranks of a repeating decimal—it would never end. Consequently, in my discussion of new developments related to delivery systems, we’ll have to set some constraints in our coverage.

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Despite these parameters, however, one thing remains clear: the list of products that can benefit from delivery systems is endless. Major products might include baked goods; self-rising pizza crusts; snacks; refrigerated and frozen dough systems; confections made with acidulants or, for a novel sensory experience, carbon dioxide; processed meats; seasoning blends; pet foods; nutrient bars and other nutraceutical foods; and supplements.

A look at some of the recently issued U.S. patents confirms this exhaustive list. New products using delivery systems range from pretzels to fortified drinks. However, regarding some of these products, you may have to look closely because the delivery system is not always emphasized in the abstract or even on the first couple of pages, although its role in the formulation is critical. Again, delivery systems do not always get the spotlight they deserve; rather, they go about their business quietly and effectively, getting the job done.

What I find especially interesting about delivery systems is the number of ways available that a particular flavor or ingredient can be delivered. For example, take the peanut—one of the most popular flavors for confections or snacks. One can incorporate the peanut using such systems as partially and fully defatted peanut flours, peanut extracts, peanut oil, peanut paste, peanut butter, partially defatted peanuts, encapsulated forms, and even alternatives to peanuts such as sunflower seed paste. A company in the Philippines recently utilized peanut fines, a by-product from the halving of roasted peanuts, as a flavoring ingredient combined with sugar and butter to substitute for peanuts in food preparations.

Furthermore, a variety of ingredient combinations are creating interesting delivery systems. Red-brown free-flowing granules combining cinnamon and sugar provide a sweet aromatic flavor (Elite Spice Inc., Jessup, Md.). Honey apple cinnamon cryocrystals offer flavors and spices embedded within sweetened particles (PL Thomas & Co., Inc., Morristown, N.J.). Ingredient bits combining corn with different colors, marketed under the name Bitzels®, provide visual appeal in such applications as snack foods, baked products, breadings, and seasoning blends (Lifewise Ingredients, Lake Zurich, Ill.)

This month’s article will profile more than 30 ingredient suppliers or manufacturers that offer exciting developments in systems that deliver flavor, nutraceuticals, colors, and other ingredients. Afterward, we’ll try to assess what future directions these delivery systems might take.

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Balchem Encapsulates, P.O, Box 600, New Hampton, NY 10958 (phone 877- 222-8811; fax 845-355-4204;, and its parent company Balchem Corp. recently moved into its new headquarters—a 20,000-squarefoot building containing laboratories for research and development of product applications. The company develops and manufactures specialty microencapsulated ingredients for providing stability in a number of applications, including dough leavening, flavor enhancement, nutrient fortification, and animal feed. The encapsulates business segment reported a 38% increase in sales over the previous year.

At Supply Side West, held in Las Vegas on December 4–6, 2002, the company showcased a range of products formulated with health-promoting ingredients from its microencapsulated Vitashure™ product line, including an encapsulated USP-grade choline chloride. Products highlighted at the show included a chocolate truffle with guarana, orange creme chocolates with vitamin C, raspberry swirl creme chocolate with ferrous sulfate, and vanilla creme chocolate with dipotassium phosphate. All the nutrients were encapsulated to overcome processing challenges, ensure potency, and mask bitter or off tastes.

A major application spotlighted at the show was a butter creme chocolate featuring encapsulated choline chloride—a free-flowing powder that is easy to handle and addresses taste and aroma challenges of raw choline. Microencapsulation of choline makes it possible for manufacturers to formulate with higher levels of choline to fulfill nutrient content claims recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while overcoming the processing challenges of this essential nutrient.

The company will offer its customers only USP-grade choline chloride and choline bitartrate which are reportedly the highest-quality and purest choline ingredients available. At the show, the company highlighted a choline-fortified cookie that also contained folic acid. A brochure, “Why You Should Care About Choline and Choline Fortification,” describes the health benefits of the nutrient and is available from the company.

In July 2002, the company named National Starch and Chemical Co. as its exclusive sales and marketing arm for its Vitashure™ wellness ingredients product line to the food and nutritional supplement markets in the Asia Pacific region. Utilizing patented precision-release systems, the line of encapsulated ingredients is used for fortification, providing manufacturers the ability to deliver healthy consumer products while extending shelf life stability.

Continuing to develop or expand ways to employ encapsulation technology in the food industry, the company has launched over the past year a variety of new products and applications which can help meet customer requirements, address current trends and consumer perceptions, solve problems in functionality, and provide improved nutrition. One innovation has been the encapsulated wellness ingredients already described. Here are a few other examples:
• Encapsulated bakery ingredients. An encapsulated line of ingredients developed to overcome common processing challenges for the baking industry is marketed under the name Bakeshure™. For example, a frozen biscuit may be formulated with Bakeshure 180, an encapsulated leavening ingredient used to optimize rise during a range of bake times while addressing undesirable processing problems such as premature leavening that can occur during the thaw cycle. A premature leavening results in low-volume products with undesirable textures and colors. Other suitable applications for the ingredient include frozen dough products such as self-rising pizza crusts, as well as dry mixes.

A frozen biscuit may also be made with a microencapsulated “fresh baked bread” flavor that reportedly delivers the desired flavor in its full intensity at the desired time. Heat in the baking process often poses specific challenges with regard to flavor delivery. Microencapsulation technology is used to stabilize flavor and ensure that it is protected from premature interactions or harsh processing conditions.

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• Encapsulated confectionery ingredients. An encapsulated line of ingredients developed for confectionery applications and other products is available under the name Confecshure™. Included in this line is a variety of acidulants, such as malic, citric, fumaric, lactic, and tartaric acids, as well as vinegar powder, designed for the sour candy category.

The newest addition to the confectionery category is Confecshure Burst, a hydrophobic encapsulated carbon dioxide (popping candy) that will deliver a popping sensation combined with a discrete and distinct flavor that will complement or contrast the flavor of the base product. The encapsulation technology prevents the carbon dioxide from being released until the precise moment when it is consumed, and it will burst in the mouth without having to be chewed. Potential applications for this ingredient include gelatin desserts, ice cream, shakes, drink mixes, peanut butter, and yogurts.

• Encapsulated flavor delivery systems. Flavor delivery systems, marketed under the name Flavorshure-3D, are flavored and colored particles similar to non-pareils, which are enhanced through encapsulation to provide additional functionalities such as controlled release and improved stability. The delivery systems are available in a variety of flavor choices (e.g., garlic, tomato and oregano, and cinnamon) and different granulation sizes and may be used in topical and/ or matrix inclusions. These products can protect flavor, control flavor release, transform liquid flavor into granule form, change the hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of flavors, and improve consistency throughout shelf life in applications. They are suitable for use in baked goods, frozen or microwaved foods, nutrient bars, chewing gums and other confections, instant mixes, and other products.

BioGaia AB, P.O. Box 3242, Stockholm, Sweden (phone 46 0 8 555 293 00; fax 46 0 8 555 293 01;, developed a novel packaging system that delivered a probiotic, Lactobacillus reuteri, directly into shelf-stable beverages, such as bottled water, soft drinks, juices, and sports drinks. If you recall, the product, marketed under the name LifeTop™, was highlighted at the 2002 IFT Food Expo. Using what I considered to be a very creative concept, it enabled long-term survival of probiotic cultures and other sensitive ingredients in packages that have a long shelf life.

According to the manufacturer, the functional ingredient is packed in a blister with a protective barrier that is integrated in the cap of the bottle. This barrier protects the ingredient from oxygen, moisture, and other factors. When activated, a special mechanism efficiently releases the ingredient into the beverage where it dissolves quickly and distributes evenly in the liquid.

Also developed was a straw which delivers the important ingredient into the beverage. Like the cap, the straw is designed to protect the probiotic or other sensitive ingredients during storage and distribution. The sensitive ingredients are automatically released and mixed with the liquid when the beverage is sipped through the straw. The straw is attached to the package in the same way as a regular drinking straw and fits virtually any portion size package, working with any beverage, cold or ambient.

Since this month’s Ingredients section is on delivery systems, I thought it would be interesting to update any new developments related to this packaging system since last year’s Annual Meeting. From the looks of things, it must have been a busy year for the company.

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In December 2002, a nutritional beverage (addera®) using the delivery system was launched on the Swedish market. The beverage, with a flavor of lemon and elderberry, uses the straw version to release and/or administer the beneficial lactic acid bacterium. Fortified with both vitamins and minerals, the product was a result of a collaborative effort between BioGaia and Semper, a leading nutritional beverage manufacturer supplying pharmacies and foodservice wholesalers.

Previously, a beverage using the delivery system was launched on the United Kingdom market by Farm Produce Marketing Ltd. This time, the straw was affixed to a drinkable yogurt product. Production of the drinkable yogurt in Tetra Pak’s new 250-mL package (Prisma) was launched in June 2002 and distributed directly to one of the United Kingdom’s largest retail chains. Farm Produce Marketing Ltd. is a British sales and marketing company that develops innovative dairy products, and was one of the first companies to introduce frozen yogurt to the British market as well as fresh milk with a 40-day shelf life.

In September 2002, BioGaia formed a new packaging company in collaboration with OnePac AB. The company will primarily manufacture BioGaia’s patented delivery system and will further develop and manufacture LifeTop products both with and without the company’s patented lactic acid bacterium.

According to a representative from BioGaia, “Our involvement in the company will give us a significant competitive advantage over our competitors when it comes to delivery systems. We will be able to offer our customers active health-enhancing ingredients together with unique delivery systems.”

The packaging system is suitable for a wide range of different ingredients, such as probiotics, vitamins, minerals, colors, and flavors. The use of a particular ingredient— or ingredient combinations— with the novel packaging can create unique opportunities in a wide variety of areas, ranging from novelty products to antimicrobials.

In fact, shortly after the 2002 IFT Annual Meeting, Staffan Palsson, president of the company’s functional foods division, noted that several ingredient companies at Food Expo expressed an interest in using the system to deliver other ingredients such as flavors and colors into beverages. This emphasis on novelty, the creation of possible children’s beverages, and improved products that have a long shelf life were perceived as an added benefit, creating other opportunities for the use of this system.

Questions about this system can also be addressed to Functional Foods, BioGaia, 6213 Angus Dr., Raleigh, NC 27613 (phone 919-782-3312).

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Wild Flavors, Inc., 1261 Pacific Ave., Erlanger, KY 41018 (phone 859- 342-3600; fax 859-342-3610;, recently introduced a market research study, “Drink It!,” which provided analysis of the beverage experience, especially what attributes consumers find refreshing. The study, sponsored by Wild Flavors and conducted by Moskowitz Jacobs Inc. in conjunction with The Understanding & Insight Group, compiled data from more than 6,000 respondents and studied 29 beverage categories.

According to the report, taste, aroma, temperature, flavor variety, mood, and healthy ingredients are the six top-rated attributes that can increase interest in a beverage. The attributes of icy cold, not too sweet, well-blended flavors, variety, sweetness, and aftertaste were found to be the six top-rated attributes that can increase refreshment.

The study also revealed that consumers view beverages in four different ways: (1) they will coordinate the beverage to the food they are going to eat; (2) they pick the beverage according to the occasion; (3) they choose a “classic” beverage; and (4) they think about different/ new versions of the beverages. For example, many alcoholic beverages, including flavored low-alcohol drinks, white wine, coolers, flavored tequila, flavored beer, and flavored ciders are connected to occasions. Other beverages, such as sports drinks, are selected for various reasons, including meal considerations, occasion, or traditional versions of the beverage.

Further understanding of consumer beverage interest can have a major impact on the formulation of beverages, the use of flavors and other ingredients, and, of course, the systems that deliver these flavors and other attributes.

For example, beverages formulated with milk and juice combinations can benefit from the company’s technology. Dairy-based juices can provide new taste sensations, a creamy mouthfeel, and healthy components such as vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, proteins, and other functional and specialty ingredients. The company’s Natural Resolver™ Technology reportedly blocks off tastes, removes unpleasant aftertastes, and rounds out the flavor. Also stabilizing technology allows the stable combination of milk and juice as it prevents milk protein separation in acidic juice bases.

Low-alcohol drinks—a fusion of traditional alcoholic beverage categories with soft drinks and specialty flavor ingredients— is an emerging beverage product which can highlight the company’s technology and use of ingredient systems. Natural Resolver Technology can take the harshness out of alcoholic beverages, making them smooth and drinkable. Sweetener and flavor systems (SweetUp™) can make these beverages low in calories, with an acceptable level of sweetness.

New soy beverages are also being developed for the marketplace. These concepts combine appealing taste and flavor profiles in a variety of soy bases fortified with juices, vitamins, minerals, fibers, botanicals, and other functional ingredients. The company’s technology is said to deliver soy-based beverages that do not have the beany flavor and astringency of the more traditional soy products.

Other specific product categories studied by the survey and which can benefit from the company’s delivery systems are enhanced waters, ready-to-drink teas, tropical fruit flavor drinks, and many others.

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Crystals International Inc., 600 W. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Plant City, FL 33563- 5117 (phone 813-359-5128; 813- 757-6060;, provides freeze-dried fruit and vegetable powders which may be used to deliver the benefits of fresh flavor and characteristic nutrients in ethnic and fusion foods. As free-flowing dry products that rehydrate instantly, they can be used as ingredients to create ethnic flavor profiles in sauces, marinades, and seasonings.

For example, Key Lime is now a typical flavoring used in Floribbean food fusion recipes. For a straight Caribbean flair, fruit juice is added to chiles and various spices to create a jerk marinade. Ceviche, a popular Latin American dish, is raw fish marinated in lime juice. Baked banana leaves mixed with pineapple, peppers, coconuts, and island spices is a common tropical marinade. Marinades are just one of the potential applications of the freeze-dried products.

Other popular uses recommended for the powders include special sauces (apple, dark sweet cherry, orange, peach, and pineapple); exotic flavors (apricot, cantaloupe, kiwi, mango, and pineapple); tropical smoothies (banana, blueberry, orange, pineapple, and strawberry); and signature meat seasonings (apple, cranberry, orange, and raspberry).

Opportunities also exist for combining fruits with other herbs and exotic spices to create ethnic or signature flavors.

Virginia Dare, 882 Third Ave., Brooklyn,NY 11232 (phone 718-788-1776; fax 718-768-3978;, provides a variety of flavors, flavor enhancers, and masking agents which are especially applicable to fortified and functional foods and beverages.

So far in this article we have mentioned how delivery systems can provide flavor, nutraceutical components, colors, and other ingredients into a food application. Interestingly, delivery systems can add a subtraction of off-notes, objectionable bitterness, and other qualities that are less than desirable. Likewise, they can add an enhancement of flavor, sweetness, or other qualities that are desirable.

Over the years, researchers at Virginia Dare, in addition to formulating a broad range of flavors, have done much work in developing ingredient systems that either mask or enhance. As nutraceutical foods grow in popularity, these compositions— available in liquid and powder forms—play an increasingly important role.

For example, a blend of flavoring ingredients marketed under the name Prosweet® is said to effectively mask a variety of undesirable flavors. It can also reduce off notes and bitterness associated with certain ingredients such as aspartame, herbs, vitamins, and minerals. In addition, the system can serve as a sweetness enhancer for a variety of sweeteners and enhance flavor, reducing harsh notes and aftertastes.

According to the manufacturer, appropriate use levels of the system are essential to achieve desired effects. For most food and beverage applications, typical use levels range from 0.10 to 0.20%. For most fortified food and beverage products, typical use levels range from 0.25 to 0.50%. The products, however, are not recommended for use in beverage syrups or finished beverages with a pH less than 3.5.

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Potential applications for these delivery systems include nutritional milk-based drinks, soy milk and soy yogurt, fortified food and beverages, protein drinks, soft chews, chewing gum, pectin and starch-based candies, frozen desserts, and baked goods.

A variety of prototype applications are available from the company that demonstrate the innovative uses that flavors and masking agents can have in the development of health-promoting products and how they meet or anticipate consumer trends. In particular, some of the prototypes incorporate the most recent additions of Prosweet masking/flavoring systems—reportedly new and improved versions over previous systems.

One application, in particular, that the company highlighted at past food shows is the Forest Berry Nutritional Bar. This soy-based, high-protein nutrition bar is yogurt coated and delivers 13 g of protein. It is made with an all-natural version of Prosweet, which masks offnotes of soy proteins and vitamins or minerals, and contains Natural Forest Berry Flavor WONF

General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., was recently assigned U.S. patent 6,436,453 describing production of oil-encapsulated minerals and vitamins in a glassy matrix. According to the patent, a mineral or vitamin fortification ingredient which does not deleteriously affect palatability and appearance of foods is obtained by encapsulation of the mineral or vitamin in a grindable, glassy matrix composition.

At least one edible oil is included in the encapsulating composition to prevent substantial adverse interaction between the mineral or vitamin and the glass-forming matrix material, as well as to achieve a controlled release of the vitamin or mineral from the glassy matrix. The oil also reduces or eliminates the use of added water as plasticizer, avoiding the need for substantial evaporation or drying to achieve a non-rubbery, grindable encapsulated ingredient. The oil assists in plasticizing the matrix material for extrudability and the prevention of undesirable browning or discoloration of the encapsulating matrix composition.

The encapsulated minerals or vitamins may be ground into a particulate composition such as a fine powder for direct incorporation into or for topical application on foods such as ready-toeat cereals, yogurt, and fruit snacks.

Another delivery system development is illustrated by New Berry Burst Cheerios, a cereal that the manufacturer recently introduced into the marketplace. The cereal, which pairs Cheerios with real berries in the box, is available in two types: Strawberry and Triple Berry (strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries). The taste of fresh fruit is provided through the established process of freeze drying, a method which maintains the ingredient’s original appearance, texture, and nutrition. When milk is added to the cereal, the fruit rehydrates. Along with the addition of real berries, the cereal has a new, naturally sweetened flavor. The new additions provide another novel way of eating the cereal, a whole-grain oat food which is a natural source of soluble fiber— an ingredient which, as part of a inclulow- fat diet, has a special ability to lower blood cholesterol levels, which may decrease the risk of heart disease.

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Lallemand/Institut Rosell, 8480 Saint-Laurent Blvd., Montreal, Quebec H2P 2M6 Canada (phone 800-452-4364 or 514-381-5631; fax 514-383-4493;, offers the newest probiotic application technologies, including microencapsulation and enteric coating systems. The company, a leader in probiotics since 1932, manufactures more than 50 probiotic strains for the human health and nutrition markets worldwide.

According to the company, one of today’s main concerns regarding traditional probiotics is their sensitivity to stomach acidity, and optimal intestinal tract colonization. Without protection, probiotic viability decreases significantly during digestion because of their partial inability to resist gastric juices. Researchers at the company have developed special delivery systems to address these problems.

In 2001, the company received the Frost & Sullivan Market Engineering Technology Leadership Award for its new enteric coating technology, appropriately termed STAR™ (Stomach Acid Resistance), which consists of a protective water-based layer around a capsule containing a concentration of probiotic microorganisms to ensure an increase in probiotic bacteria survivability in the gastrointestinal tract.

Modifying the enteric coating formulation from solvent- to water-based, the technology prevents the solubilization of capsules in the stomach and protects probiotics against acid shock, providing optimal colonization in the gut. As a result of the technology, manufacturers can include a lower concentration of probiotic microorganisms per capsule without losing potency. The development is said to be a significant contribution to dietary supplement companies focused on probiotic bioavailability and effectiveness of their products.

Recently the company developed a microencapsulation system called Probiocap® to expand probiotics application into functional foods. The technology is said to dramatically enhance the viability of probiotic bacteria, making possible their use in many new applications, as well as improving their viability in existing products.

Probiotic bacteria are coated and entrapped in a matrix of food-grade vegetable fatty acids. By evenly covering the microbial cells, the technology produces a fine homogeneous powder of concentrated active probiotic bacteria. The coating protects the probiotic from the presence of oxygen and moisture, and acidity. Also, the coating allows the probiotic to pass through the gastrointestinal tract without being destroyed by gastric juices and is triggered for release in the intestines based on pH conditions. Furthermore, results have shown that the shelf life of the stabilized probiotic bacteria is substantially improved in comparison with bacteria from traditional drying technology. The microencapsulation technology has been applied to several strains of probiotics for use in food applications.

McCormick & Co., Inc., 211 Schilling Circle, Hunt Valley, MD 21031 (phone 410-527-8753;, has released its 2003 McCormick Flavor Forecast, a definitive report predicting the flavors and trends that will shape today’s culinary climate and tomorrow’s as well. Among the top flavors it identified are bay leaf, lemon grass, sesame, chile peppers, mustard, turmeric, cinnamon, pepper, vanilla, coriander/cilantro, sea salt, and wasabi.

According to the report, Americans are looking for bolder, more exciting flavor combinations. These might include the creation of fruit salsas which combine fruits such as papaya with chipotle chiles. Spice blends, especially those that pair sweet and spicy flavors, may provide a way to boost the flavor of familiar foods.

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A section of the report entitled, “The Shrinking Globe,” noted, “whereas foods once were primarily lumped into categories such as Asian, Italian, and Mexican, people are now seeking to experience the authentic regional flavors of each culture. As their understanding of the subtle differences among regions expands, people are delving deeper, experimenting with indigenous ethnic ingredients that broaden their flavor horizons.”

Other trends discussed by the report include food as an occasion to celebrate; how portable foods continue to change the way Americans eat; the varying degrees of heat; organic and natural foods; and the comeback of meat.

With these trend possibilities setting the stage, try to imagine the number of delivery systems that are available that can make these trends a reality. Coatings, rubs, or marinades capturing the flavor of regional cuisines and the inclusion of ingredients such as cheeses, nuts, fruits, and vegetables can make for effective delivery systems in meat products. Spice blends combining black and white pepper, mustard, wasabi, and cinnamon can offer varying degrees of heat as well as add different dimensions of flavor.

The report noted that Americans want to experience something new to make them feel invigorated, but at the same time want to retain some degree of familiarity. Does that sound familiar? Go back to Sanger’s remarks at the beginning of this article. Again, delivery systems ranging from encapsulation to coatings or particulates can help established brands “flourish on well-trod paths.”

Genesis Research Corp., 918 Sherwood Dr., Lake Bluff, IL 60044 (phone 847-810-3480; fax 847-234-5545), recently developed a process for producing sustained-release powders for use in nutraceutical applications.

According to the manufacturer, the oil-to-powder production process produces a fine, sustained-release, free-flowing powder with yields of 95–99% of the powder’s original active ingredients. The process stabilizes the oil while masking any taste.

Advantages of the process include prolonged release of active ingredients, protection of volatile or unstable compounds, and taste and odor masking for certain edible oils or fatty acids. Furthermore, it stabilizes and protects the oil’s active ingredients from the harsh pH environment of the stomach, for use as a delivery mechanism to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract.

The high-yield, sustained-release powders produced by the technology are suitable for use in drink mixes, nutrition bars, smoothies and other beverages, or other food additives, as well as in the more traditional sustained-release applications in hard-shell encapsulation.

Ingredients produced by the process include a line of edible oil powders derived from fish and oregano, as well as conjugated linoleic acid and astazanthin.

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Givaudan Roure International SA was recently assigned U.S. patent 6,436,461 describing a process for preparing gel beads as food additives. The method encapsulates water-soluble or volatile flavors, vitamins, coloring materials, and other active ingredients into a water-insoluble, heat-stable polysaccharide matrix in such a way that the performance of the encapsulated ingredient in the application is improved by reducing the risk of flavor loss by volatilization/ chemical decomposition during heat processing or by modifying/enhancing the flavor release during consumption of the food. The method allows encapsulation of water-soluble and highly volatile flavor ingredients, such as acetoin and diacetyl, at high efficiency.

According to the patent, the method produces edible microparticles consisting of a matrix of essentially water-insoluble shape-retaining alginate gel held together by salt bridges. Process steps include production of a suspension or slurry of gel particles, in particular gel beads, consisting of a multivalent cation containing acid polysaccharide and a water-insoluble flavor solvent; isolation of the gel beads from the slurry by filtration and centrifugation; dehydration by oven or fluid bed drying (optional); and absorption of the flavor into the gel beads.

In this application, beads are defined as solid particles with a homogeneous composition and texture from inside to outside in which the flavor droplets or particles are uniformly distributed. (Capsules, on the other hand, are defined as particles consisting of a liquid or solid core of the active ingredient surrounded by a shell.) The dry encapsulation process according to the invention overcomes the difficulties encountered in the encapsulation of water-soluble flavors when using wet slurry technologies of coacervation and absorption into microorganisms.

Flavor microparticles produced by the process are said to substantially retain their structural integrity in food processes, allowing effective protection of the flavor ingredients against volatilization and decomposition. If the active ingredient is a flavor, the flavor microparticles provide sustained release of the flavor to the finished product during storage and prior to consumption.

The invention is said to provide an inexpensive method to enhance flavor effectiveness by preventing flavor loss or enhancing flavor release.

Wacker Biochem Corp., 3301 Sutton Rd., Adrian, MI 49221-9397 (phone 517- 264-8794; fax 517-264-8795; www., is increasingly using its cyclodextrin technology to solve stability, off-taste, and odor problems of certain ingredients in nutraceutical formulations. In previous food applications, cyclodextrins were primarily used to stabilize flavors.

derived products that have a bucket-shape form with a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic surface. The unique form allows inclusion complexes with various molecules. Ingredients complexed with cyclodextrins are stabilized to protect against oxidation and heat.

According to the manufacturer, cyclodextrin-formulated omega oils (OmegaDry®) are stabilized, taste- and odor-free powders that can deliver sufficient amounts of omega-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical food formulations, such as health bars, powder drinks, tablets, and fortified cereals, dressings, and dairy products. Another important application for cyclodextrins is taste- and odor-masking related to soy-based ingredients and components.

The company is planning to extend its product line for cyclodextrin formulations in the health area.

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Archer Daniels Midland Co., P.O. Box 1470, Decatur, IL 62525 (phone 217-424- 5200;, is developing controlled-release supplements using a delivery system exclusively licensed to the company by Nutraceutix, Inc.

ADM will market its products using this technology on a global basis to dietary supplement manufacturers. The first product marketed was Novasoy® Daily Dose™—a once-a-day supplement which provides a consistent, steady delivery of natural-based soy isoflavones throughout the day, much like a woman’s body naturally produces estrogen. The new product is designed to provide all the benefits of isoflavones in a single daily dose.

Results of a recent clinical study published in the March 2002 Journal of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists concluded that women who took isofla-vones three times a day had significant reduction in a variety of menopausal symptoms. In addition, it was determined that isoflavones may help support a healthy cardiovascular system.

Although the controlled-release technology was used to design supplements, systems delivering isoflavones and other healthy components, flavors, and even masking agents obviously have great potential in foods, especially in health-promoting or nutraceutical food and beverage products.

Van Drunen Farms, 300 W. 6th St., Momence, IL 60954-0009 (phone 815- 472-3100; fax 815-472-3850), is offering drum-dried ingredients as an economical way to deliver fresh flavors to a variety of foods.

According to the manufacturer, drum drying provides a useful alternative to air-dried and freeze-dried ingredients. Produced by dehydrating a fruit or vegetable slurry between two heated, revolving drums, these ingredients maintain most of the color, flavor, and nutrients of their fresh counterparts, in an easily dispersible form.

Drum-dried ingredients are suitable for use in soup and sauce mixes, baby foods, dips, extruded cereal products, fruit purees for confections and bakery items, and fillings for frozen toaster toaster and microwave snacks. They are simple to incorporate into existing manufacturing process.

A wide range of fruits, vegetable, and legumes are available.

Van Drunen Farms is also a manufacturer of freeze-dried, air dried, individually quick frozen, sugar-infused, fire-roasted, and sun-dried fruits and vegetables. Using specialty ingredients custom-dried by the company is an effective way to deliver flavors, colors, and textures to soups, sauces, salsas, salad dressings, and other products. In its state-of-the-art facilities, the company can customize products to specification, including specialized blends of fruits and vegetables and ingredients of a specific particle size, moisture content, or bulk density.

The company’s Nutraceutical Division, FutureCeuticals, recently introduced a specially processed way to deliver reportedly the most active and biologically available form of soy isoflavones in the marketplace. Previously, isoflavones, when metabolized, may lose up to 50% of their functionality, as the body absorbs only the aglycone form of the isoflavone. In comparison, this new product, Fermented Aglycone Soy Isoflavones, is said to be superior.

Furthermore, these isoflavones are available in a patented “Micro Emulsion” form, which allows for greater bioavailability and selective delivery in powder and liquid forms. The product is suitable for nutrition bars, liquid supplements, snacks, or cereals.

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SPI Pharma Group/SPI Polyols, 321 Cherry Lane, New Castle, DE 19720-2780 (phone 302-576-8554; fax 302-576-8567;, has developed powdered delivery systems for use in applications ranging from chewing gum to nutraceutical tablets.

A delivery system for directly compressible chewing gum was developed under the name Pharmagum™ S. The system, available as a free-flowing powder, may be used to produce tablets which morph into gum while chewing. It can be directly compressed on a traditional tableting machine without the aid of polyurethane- or Teflon-tipped tooling. Direct compression chewing gum is a mixture of polyols or sugars with a chewing gum base. The system offers the advantages of customized chewing gum delivery.

Also developed for tablets and nutraceutical applications is a delivery system called Pharmaburst™, which is capable of rapid disintegration while providing a rich, creamy mouthfeel. The quick-dissolving excipient system can be easily formulated with a nutraceutical active and then compressed on a tablet press, allowing the customer the flexibility to develop and manufacture quick-dissolve formulations in-house at a reasonable cost.

The SPI Pharma Applications Research/Technical Service (ARTS) laboratory is responsible for product development and technical support of all excipients, delivery systems, and formulated products. According to the company, the laboratory can quickly develop prototype formulations based on these excipients and delivery systems.

Kerry Ingredients North America, 100 E. Grand Ave., Beloit, WI 53511 (phone 608-363-1200), is unveiling energy bars which incorporate a number of delivery systems at Nutracon-Supply Expo West, held in Anaheim, Calif., March 6–9, 2003.

Called Kerry X-Bars, the prototype applications demonstrate the effectiveness of ingredient systems that can deliver flavor, texture, color, and, of course, nutrition to the consumer. These delivery systems, as the manufacturer aptly puts it, “turbo charges the bars on the inside (for example, soy nuggets) to the outside (coatings).”

Products showcased included XTreme Low-Carb Crunch, a healthy snack featuring chocolate center covered with peanut butter coating; X-Treme Soy-Infused Boost, a cereal and soy nutrition bar featuring an enrobed high-protein, lemon yogurt coating; X-Treme Jump Start Savory, a bar made from crisp rice featuring salsa flavorings and a Cheddar cheese coating; and X-Treme High-Protein Burst, a chocolate endurance bar demonstrating milk protein concentrates and isolates with yogurt coating.

The new “Kerry energy bar initiative” was shown by four Kerry units—Sweet Ingredients, Specialty Ingredients, Proteins, and Nutriant—banding together as a one-stop supplier of value-added ingredients and functional bar technologies.

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DSM Food Specialties, Nutritional Ingredients, P.O. Box 1, 2600 MA, Delft, The Netherlands (phone 31-15-279- 3538; fax 31-15-279-3480;, offers natural enbeta-carotene in a variety of forms, including gelatin-based beadlets (15% and 7.5% concentrates), oil suspension (in a variety of concentrations), crystals (96%), and as a cold-water-soluble version (1%). Recently, at 2002 Supply Side West, the company unveiled a new form to deliver beta-carotene, non-gelatin, vegetarian-approved beadlets.

The tablet-grade beadlets, marketed under the name CaroCare®, are sourced from non-animal excipients, and contain 7.5% natural beta-carotene. The beadlets are said to match the processing profile and performance of their gelatin-based counterparts with excellent flow properties for easy handling, good particle-size distribution, and high strength during tableting. They are designed for use in the production of single beta-carotene, multi-vitamin, antioxidant, and mixed carotenoid tablets or two-piece hard-shell capsules.

Beta-carotene is valued for its antioxidant properties, color, and pro-vitamin A activity in the dairy, bakery, confectionery, and beverage sectors.

In a related story, DSM is acquiring the vitamins and fine chemicals division of Roche Holding AG, reportedly the world’s leading supplier of vitamins and carotenoids. The division will become a unit of DSM. Such an acquisition may spur the development of other innovative delivery systems.

Cargill Health & Food Technologies, a business unit of Cargill, Inc., 15407 McGinty Rd. W., MS 96, Wayzata, MN 55391 (phone 952-742-5976; fax 952-742- 2185;, is a leading developer, processor, and marketer of science-based, healthy ingredients for food and dietary supplements. Over the past year, the company has been unveiling a number of systems that deliver health and functionality benefits.

At Nutracon-Supply Expo West, the company debuted its new phytosterol brand, marketed under the name CoroWise™. Plant phytosterols have been found in clinical studies to be effective in decreasing total blood and LDL cholesterol as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol. A recent FDA action will expand the use of the phytosterol heart health claim to a broader range of foods and beverages.

At the SoyFoods Summit 2003, held in Miami, Fla., February 26–28, the company spoke on the health benefits of soy isoflavones and highlighted its product, AdvantaSoy™ Clear™ as a source of concentrated soy isoflavones. The product, which recently received a GRAS self-determination, is available in concentrations up to 50%, and offers improved solubility, taste, and color compared to many other isoflavone products. The product reportedly delivers 30–50 mg soy isoflavones per serving in such applications as beverages, nutrition bars, yogurt, meal replacements, and confections.

Also, developed specifically for the dietary supplement industry is a soy isoflavone ingredient marketed under the name AdvantaSoy™ Compress™. The ingredient, which is producing using the same technology that made Clear, can generate concentrations up to 50%.

The way that these ingredients are produced and their broadening applications have a positive impact on their effectiveness in delivering health benefits.

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Dairy Management Inc., 10255 W. Higgins Rd., Ste. 900, Rosemont, IL 60018-5616 (phone 847-803-2000; fax 847-803-2077;, provides a variety of literature discussing the role that dairy ingredients can play in different delivery systems.

The gelation property of whey proteins can allow food formulators to encase various ingredients and effectively deliver them within a given product. Ongoing research continues to study ways to modify whey proteins, expanding the gelation conditions and gel structures.

Dairy ingredients, especially whey, can offer a range of functional and nutritional advantages when formulated in food coatings, which when added to products such as meats, vegetables, fish, and cheese, can provide flavor, enhance texture properties, and create appealing appearances. For example, whey proteins, upon heating, form heat-induced gels that will assist in the adhesion of batters and breadings. Also, whey ingredients that have higher levels of lactose can help increase Maillard browning, boosting the color of the coating.

In addition to the above coatings, dairy ingredients offer performance benefits in edible films which can act as barriers to oxygen, aroma, oils, or moisture; as carriers of antioxidants, antimicrobials, and other ingredients; and as modifiers of food appearance. Whey protein edible coatings are formed from water solutions and can be made either water soluble or water resistant. They are transparent, glossy, and offer a bland aroma and desirable flavor characteristics for food developers.

One of the most “colorful” delivery systems applied to the dairy area over the past year is a cheese injection technology developed by the Western Dairy Center at Utah State University. The technology shoots a narrow, high-pressure stream of liquid into young, mild-flavored cheese. As the cheese matures, the added flavor or color spreads throughout the block of cheese to create a custom product which provides unique snacking opportunities. Not only does the technology deliver flavors and colors such as blueberry, apple, and bubblegum into a nontraditional application, but the cheese itself, especially when used as an ingredient in a cheese spread, dip, snack, or other product, becomes a novel delivery system for the flavor and color.

DuPont Protein Technologies, P.O. Box 88940, St. Louis, MO 63188-1940(phone 314-982-1983; fax 314-982-1121;, has developed newer extruded soy nugget technologies that deliver in the range of 60–80% protein. These technologies are said to offer formulators of nutritional food bars greater flexibility to achieve target protein contents, while providing special texture properties and improved shelf life.

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Traditionally, soy powders were used in the formulation of such food bars, as nutrition, energy, weight management, performance, and meal replacement. However, as the rapid market growth increased demands regarding shelf life and texture, soy nuggets were found to offer advantages as a delivery system. In particular, these extruded products can positively affect shelf life, are being modified to deliver different flavor and textural properties to the application, and overall give consumers a wider range of eating experiences.

According to the manufacturer, extruded soy nuggets have application in a wide range of nutrition bars, as well as having potential in other products, such as snacks, cereals, and baked goods. These protein ingredients can play an increasingly important role in the overall nutritional profile and the eating quality characteristics of the finished food product.

Colorcon, Food/Confectionery Div., 415 Moyer Blvd., West Point, PA 19486 (phone 215-661-2657; fax 215-661-2626), has developed a pigment system which reportedly gives a gem-like appearance to confections and snacks. Called Pearlicoat™, the thin-coated product is designed to help upscale confectionery and snack products and provide them with an additional novelty or appeal.

The FDA-approved pigment system is available in five brilliant colors, formulated as a liquid or dry concentrate, and accommodates both flavoring and sweetening. According to the company, it can be used by food manufacturers in a number of ways—as a complete coating system, to add a marbleizing or speckled effect, and on confections, chocolate, jelly beans, salted snacks, and a variety of other products.

“These pigmented systems also offer manufacturing flexibility to food processors, as they can be used on already finished products as well as products in production,” said a representative from the company. The benefits of putting a finished product back in the pan for an added “coat” allows confectionery companies to quickly change product appearance as the market demands, without the need for reformulation or the cost of carrying a variety of products in inventory.

Available in both aqueous and solvent-based formulations, the thin, pearlescent coating does not fracture or rub off during packaging and shipping.

Loders Croklaan, 24708 W. Durkee Rd., Channahon, IL 60410-5249 (phone 815-730-5200; fax 815-730-5202;, recently innovated the process of delivering fat-based flavors. Marketed under the name BetrFX™, the flavor delivery system is completely customizable, designed to meet the specific requirements of manufacturers, including taste, texture, aroma, color, and mouthfeel.

Unlike traditional products that use a fixed carrier, the system allows manufacturers to select the performance characteristics of the product. Working with the manufacturer, the company custom formulates the product, including the fat carrier used. By customizing the characteristics, such as melting temperature, the right texture, taste, and mouthfeel are used, and flavors, seasonings, and spices are combined in a matrix that provides the desired properties.

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The system is available in a variety of shapes and sizes, including nuggets, flakes, rods, and chips. It can be used topically, in laminations, as inclusions, mixed throughout the product, in sweet and savory applications, and in baked, unbaked, or even frozen products.

According to a company representative, “By applying our extensive expertise in lipid technology to flavor delivery systems, we can create excellent quality and intensity in a diverse range of applications.” Some of these include bakery, cereal, snacks, confections, culinary, meats, and foodservice.

The system described is the newest innovation available from the company. Previously, the company developed such delivery systems as encapsulated ingredients (Durkote), coating fats (Kaomel®), and high-moisture barriers (Cotebar).

In 2002, Unilever, the company’s parent, sold Loders Croklaan to IOI Corp. Berhad of Malaysia.

Southeastern Mills, Inc., P.O. Box 908, Rome, GA 30162 (phone 706-291-6528; fax 706-295-5411), manufactures customized batter systems, breadings, seasonings and marinades, sauces and gravy mixes, dry-blended products for baking, and flour, corn meal, and grits. All of these products can help deliver flavor and texture benefits to the finished food product.

Some of the newest products that the company offers are marinades and seasoning blends designed especially for beef. Earlier, this article mentioned that some forecasters are predicting a rise in beef consumption, so ingredient systems such as these may prove very timely.

The company can develop customized flavor systems for the customer’s application.

Mane Inc., 999 Tech Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45150 (phone 513-248-9876; fax 513-248-8808;, has developed a number of systems that are said to release the flavor technology.

One delivery system is in the form of capsules. For example, a sugar-free hard candy may be formulated which is said to have a green apple flavor and bursts of hot cinnamon. According to the manufacturer, the prototype is formulated with Apple Artificial Flavor and Cinnamon Artificial Flavor Capsules.

A second delivery system is in the form of granules. A chewy candy prototype is said to have a refreshing blend of pineapple and mango. It contains Pineapple Artificial Flavor and Mango Artificial Flavor Granules.

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A&B Ingredients, Inc., 24 Spielman Rd., Fairfield, NJ 07004 (phone 973- 227-1390; fax 973-227-0172;, has introduced rice starch crystals which are formulated for pastry creams. Rice starch has been shown to enhance flavor, eliminate grittiness, and make for a texture that is lighter and creamier than other starches.

Marketed under the name Remy CN, the ingredient is formulated into a crystal structure, which means it offers dust-free handling during processing. It is also freeze-thaw stable and can be used for frozen pastries.

Rice starches are frequently used in Italy in the manufacture of cannoli and other cream-filled products. According to Gil Bakal, Managing Director of A&B Ingredients, “the only reason rice is not the starch of choice in the U.S. is because until now it hasn’t been offered here. Rice starch provides a way for product developers to make pastry creams that are lighter and less filling.”

The company’s focus is to discover ingredients that enable its customers to create value-added products. It is committed to working, as a partner, to develop prototypes of new and improved food products.

Watson Foods Co., Inc., 301 Heffernan Dr., West Haven, CT 06516 (phone 203-932-3000; fax 203-932-8266), offers a variety of products that illustrate the diversity of delivery systems.

Edible glitter provides a novel way to deliver color and help transform the appearance of a conventional product. As the name suggests, a few sprinkles of the ingredient can add a glittering color to cookies, cakes, doughnuts, jelly beans, breakfast cereals, confections, snacks, and a variety of other foods. The eye-catching glitter comes in a variety of colors— amethyst, black, blue, burgundy, emerald, gold, green, orange, pink, red, silver, white, yellow, and other colors as well, including rainbow (mixed colors) and custom colors. It is also available in new flake sizes and flake thicknesses.

Customized premixes can fortify an application with the desired vitamins and minerals while providing convenience and ease of use. Furthermore, microencapsulation used in a premix allows high levels of nutrients to be added to nutrition bars and other such products without affecting the flavor profile. The premix, as a delivery system, makes possible a broader range of applications (for example, a nutraceutical cookie) and can combine effectively a consumer’s desires for indulgence and health.

Customized bases and mixes for formulating breads and other bakery products with high levels of protein are also available.

Now, individually, each of these three ingredient types can help transform or reinvigorate a conventional application—a reoccurring theme in this article. Try to imagine, for a second, a combination of these three ingredients. For example, a fortified ice cream with edible glitter. Or a bread made with a high-protein base, fortified with a vitamin and mineral premix, and topped with red and green glitter for Christmas. Not only are the possibilities endless, but one can clearly see the effectiveness of delivery systems either working individually or together.

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Ottens Flavors, 7800 Holstein Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19153 (phone 215-365-7800; fax 215-365-7801), has launched new line extensions in the areas of sweetness enhancers, bitterness blockers, and sweetness maskers for use in fortified and vitamin-enriched products and other applications.

A previous product, marketed under the name OttensPlus™, is said to effectively dominate taste receptors, extending the peak-time of product-positive flavors while blocking or masking the perception of off-notes. Similar to this product, these new sweetness enhancers and bitterness blockers act as masking agents to cover off-note flavors by going straight to the taste receptors in the mouth and working to change or improve flavors at the base level.

According to the company, fortified and vitamin-enriched products, with their associated unpleasant and sometimes bitter qualities, call for a new breed of sweetness enhancers and bitterness blockers. Consequently, the company has developed a new generation of masking products which can be customized for a wide range of applications to ensure masking of undesirable off-notes.

Recent products are also presenting the challenge of reducing the level of sweetness perception. The new line extension of sweetness maskers have contributed to solving these kind of flavoring problems as well.

Griffith Laboratories, One Griffith Center, Alsip, IL 60803-3495 (phone 708-371-0900; fax 708-371-0900;, are offering two new lines of innovative bakery solutions— self-rising breads and pizza doughs, and microwavable cinnamon rolls.

The new products, developed for foodservice operators, are said to provide the taste and performance of bread products without the inconvenience and expense involved in scratch baking.

A new Culinary Technovations brochure is highlighting the technology and motivation behind these new products and their application in microwave baking and freezer-to-oven baking. The brochure is also featuring sample recipes and consumer research.

Researchers at the company developed the products in compliance with Drayton Enterprises.

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Taiyo International,Inc., 4700 W. 77th St., Ste. 175, Edina, MN 55435 (phone 952-832-5273; fax 952-832-9897;, provides a fortification system that disperses insoluble iron in liquid formulations without any precipitation. Marketed under the name SunActive Fe™, the encapsulated ferric pyrophosphate with reduced particle size is said to be stable against heat, salt, pH, and oxidation; does not impart an unpleasant iron flavor or change in color to the application; and has superior absorption properties and bioavailability.

In a stable isotope bioavailability study with infant cereal and yogurt drink, researchers at the Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Zurich, Switzerland, compared iron absorption of the compound to that of ferrous sulfate. They found that it has the same bioavailability as ferrous sulfate in adult women. The high relative iron bioavailability of the product indicates its potential usefulness as a delivery system in food and beverage fortification.

Results of the study were reported at the 2003 International Anemia Consultative Group Symposium (INACG), held in Marrakech, Morocco, February 6–7, 2003.

GNT USA, Inc., 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10951 (phone 914-524-0600; fax 914-524-0681), has developed fruit and vegetable extracts which can function as delivery systems for nutraeutical components.

Extracts called Nutrifood™ provide standardized levels of phytochemicals, including carotenoids, anthocyanins, and polyphenols, as they are found in fresh fruits and vegetables. These liquid concentrates may be used in beverages, candies, fruit-based fillings, dairy items, breads, ice creams, yogurt, cookies, snacks, pasta, and nutraceutical food products.

Particle Dynamics, Inc., 2503 S. Hanley Rd., St. Louis, MO 63144 (phone 314-968-2376), offers a range of delivery systems for use in food and nutritional products. These technologies include direct compression (DESTAB™) and microencapsulation (DESCOTE® and MicroMask™).

The technologies offer a variety of benefits, such as taste and odor masking, enhanced physical properties (flow and compressibility), and improved stability. The company also offers custom formulations.

Among the products the company highlighted at the 2002 IFT Food Expo included microencapsulated colors and microencapsulated sodium ascorbate. These ingredients offer special advantages in fortified nutritional drinks and other such applications.

Zylepsis Ltd., 6 Highpoint Henwood Bus. Estate, Ash-ford, Kent TN24 8DH, United Kingdom (phone 1233-660-555; fax 1233-660-777), provides a variety of innovative delivery systems, including novel encapsulation methods. The technologies can solve a number of problems and help develop improved food products.

The company has applied its expertise to a number of areas, including heat stability and controlled release of cheese, fruit, or other fragile taste systems; masking off-tastes caused by the incorporation of soy, vitamins, and other nutrients; development of large-particle, sugar-free encapsulates; taste systems that change flavor profile during chewing; and long-lasting flavor systems.

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Cereal Ingredients, Inc., 10835 Ambassador Dr., Kansas City, MO 64153 (phone 816-891-1055; fax 816-891- 7606), develops and markets ingredients that deliver flavor, texture, and color to food applications.

For example, the company introduced a new line of specially processed bites (Flav-R-Bursts) that are designed to add a high level of flavor, color, and piece identity to the food product. Also, a line of coated particulates (Coated Flav-R-Bites) is designed to provide a unique swirl in finished breads, baked goods, and other products.

We’ve discussed that delivery systems can provide flavors, colors, and nutraceutical components. But sometimes we might forget that there is another very important attribute that they can provide. Coffee drinkers, in particular, might know more readily what that attribute is. Or people who like teas and other beverages that have a perfume-like or floral scent will quickly recognize that attribute. I’m talking, of course, about aroma and what some marketers refer to as “Aroma Therapy.”

Sensus LLC, 9848 Windisch Rd., West Chester, OH 45069 (phone 513-759-6500; fax 513-755-5422;, offers a variety of new tea and coffee essences and coffee and tea concentrates. The company can meet a broad range of needs—from topnotes to the entire flavor profile. The company utilizes the Spinning Cone Column to brew both coffee and tea, then captures the aroma fractions at their peak. This enables the collection of the entire fresh coffee and tea flavor profile while avoiding heat induced off-notes. The company follows the aroma collection process with its integrated proprietary concentration process that gently produces a high-solids concentrate that is suitable for use in drinks, drink syrups, and dairy products.

Robertet Flavors, 10 Colonial Dr., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (phone 732-981- 8300; fax 732-981-1717), recently introduced a line of floral flavors that may be used to create sparkling and fruit-juice-based beverages. Examples include Acerola Orange Blossom, Blackberry Violet, Cassie Strawberry, Cherry Orange Blossom, Guanabana Violet, Guava Rose, Jasmine Orange, Mango Mimosa, and many others. I think you get the idea.

Givaudan, mentioned earlier in this article, also is involved in activities ranging from the discovery of new molecules to the improvement of delivery systems that allow the flavor or fragrance to be released.

Regarding systems that deliver aroma, I think we’ll be seeing more of these kinds of products. At least it makes scents to me.

In addition to providing aroma delivery, the ingredient systems covered in this article will continue to move in a variety of directions—in the process, encompassing current as well as future trends. That means, as was discussed in the McCormick report, that we’ll be seeing the delivery of a broad range of flavors and flavor combinations representing different local cuisines. Interestingly, just as modern technologies such as email have made the world a smaller place, delivery systems will help bring to the consumer foods from all around the world, shrinking the planet to the size of your taste buds.

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On the health front, delivery systems will be used in nutraceutical products to either mask undesirable qualities or enhance positive ones. Furthermore, these ingredients will help make these kinds of foods more appealing—adding color, particulates, or coatings. As past Ingredients sections have mentioned many times before, if a food doesn’t taste good or look good, it probably won’t be repeatedly bought, no matter how healthful it may be. Delivery systems will help achieve this “Holy Grail.” And, at least from a consumer standpoint—although I am not sure if it is possible to completely bridge the nutraceutical area with foods that are associated with celebrating or festivity—certainly delivery systems can help bring the two areas—health and indulgence—closer together or at least allow them to happily coincide in the marketplace sphere.

In the future, we may also be seeing more innovative packaging developments which can act as delivery systems. Someday, the individual may even be able to control or adjust the amount of the ingredient to be delivered in the application. Again, some people argue that the finished product can be viewed as a delivery system itself. Innovative packaging ideas only make this approach a further reality.

And, especially after reviewing the broad range of delivery systems available— both established ones and new concepts—I think we’ll be seeing the possibilities of different combinations of delivery systems working together, much like ingredients functioning in synergy.

Finally, returning to Sanger’s remarks, delivery systems can help revitalize familiar products—adding berries, for example, to Cheerios—and consequently can help established brands to flourish. Or delivery systems can help create new products, taking advantage especially of trends such as the rise in the Hispanic population, the incorporation of health-promoting components such as soy or inulin into culinary dishes, and the creation of fun dishes, especially around holidays or even in response to troubled times caused by political problems and unrest.

In a capsule, the basic point is that delivery systems help send the right message.

Senior Associate Editor

About the Author

Food Technology magazine Senior Editor and key member of the Food Technology editorial staff for 26 years.
Donald Pszczola