Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and statistical analysis, researchers have identified key volatile flavor compounds in black tea from around the world.
The research study, published in the Journal of Food Science and from the Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, analyzed 112 variations of black tea from several countries to find the volatile flavor compounds. Identifying the compounds allows for their use as potential biomarkers to test the authenticity of tea samples. The research team chose to focus their analysis on samples from three of the top tea-producing countries: China, India, and Sri Lanka.
From the 112 black tea samples, a total of 140 effective substances were found as volatile flavor compounds. The researchers then divided these compounds into 12 subclasses: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, alkenes, heterocyclic compounds, alkanes, acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids, phenols, and lactones. Of these subclasses, alcohols were the most prevalent in the samples.
The researchers also used multivariate statistical analysis to identify flavor compounds with an odor activity value greater than one, indicating a key active aroma component. Eight volatile flavor compounds achieved this odor activity value: linalool, pentanoic acid, methyl salicylate, hexanoic acid, 1-methyl-naphthaline, phenylethyl alcohol, geraniol, and beta-ionone.
The eight key aromas were cited for their use in determining the authenticity of different variants of black teas. Further, these compounds can also be used as biomarkers to differentiate teas within China, allowing for more areas to be scrutinized for potential fraud.
The global instant noodles market is expected to grow by 4.2% by 2028, according to a new report by Valuates Reports.
Instant noodles are typically sold in a precooked, dried block with a flavoring powder or seasoning oil in a separate package. Some varieties, like cup noodles, have the flavoring powder loose in the packaging. The product is designed to be cooked in boiling water but can be eaten dry. The instant noodle market is segmented by flavor: chicken, beef, seafood, and vegetables.
Valuates Reports estimates that the global instant noodle market is worth $34.2 billion in 2022 and will grow to $43.8 billion by 2028. The report cites the rising demand for ready-to-eat foods and the return of busier work schedules for the increase in market value.
Moreover, manufacturers of instant noodles are meeting consumer demands for a wider variety of flavors and more nutrients added to the products. Some brands have begun fortifying their noodles with micronutrients like iron, manganese, and B vitamins.
Beef-flavored noodles are expected to dominate the market, with a market share of 49% in the forecast period. Additionally, Asia will experience the most growth due to the rise in demand for convenient foods by the working population.
With consumers’ busy lifestyles, just adding boiled water to have an instant noodle meal can be a practical, easy option.
The number of consumers who reported using digital recipes daily doubled from 2021 to 2022, according to the 2022 Annual Recipe Usage Report from Chicory, a digital shopper marketing platform. Chicory attributes this increase in recipe use to the rise of at-home cooking due to the impact of inflation, as 43% of those surveyed indicated that inflation inspired their recipe usage.
Chicory surveyed 2,126 American consumers between the ages of 18 and 85. Consumers were asked about whether they use digital recipes, how often they use them, and where they search for digital recipes. Of those surveyed, 89% reported that they use digital recipes.
Digital recipes are driving consumers’ grocery choices. According to the study, 71% of consumers surveyed said that they use digital recipes to find meal inspiration, and 37% said they use them to save time. Further, 75% of consumers reported that they have looked at a recipe on their mobile device while at the grocery store.
With more consumers using digital recipes for their next meal, it’s important to know how they find these recipes. Most consumers say they find their recipes through organic search, such as Google, rather than social media channels.
Treating fruit juices with pectinases may be an effective method for juice clarification, according to a new review in the Journal of Food Science.
Consumers drink various fruit juices as a source of dietary fibers, minerals, and vitamins. However, most fruit juices have a very high viscosity and cloudiness when pressed due to the pectic substances, which gives the juice an unpleasant appearance and texture.
By pretreating the juice with pectinolytic enzymes, the polysaccharide chains are broken down and made soluble into the liquid, thus reducing the viscosity. Researchers also found that mild processing with pectinase enzymes preserved the flavor of the raw fruit.
The most common pectinases used in juice clarification tend to be acidic, such as depolymerases. The viscosity of fruit juice depends on the length of the chain of the pectic substance, and depolymerases break them down into smaller chains.
While pectinase enzymes are useful in juice clarification, it can be difficult to remove these enzymes from the final product. For this reason, the authors discuss the immobilization of the enzymes on a membrane. The enzymes stay on the membrane after the reaction is complete, which makes them reusable.
The authors of the review noted that maintenance of temperature and pH are crucial to optimize product yield. Both temperature and pH can lead to the denaturing of enzymes, so these factors must be carefully watched.
Long at the forefront of plant-based food safety, retired University of Georgia professor Larry Beuchat was instrumental in evaluating Salmonella in low water activity foods and is a world authority on the microbiology of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fermented foods, and food preservatives. Beuchat talked with Food Technology recently about his enormous body of research and how it is still impacting the food industry. Read the interview at iftexclusives.org/beuchat.
Irv Pflug passed away August 17, 2022. He was a longtime member of IFT and former faculty member at Michigan State University and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. The Institute for Thermal Processing Specialists Irving Pflug Memorial Scholarship was established in his honor.
J. Ralph Blanchfield passed away on August 24, 2022, at the age of 99. Blanchfield had a distinguished career in the food science profession for 70 years, including more than three decades in industry and as a consultant, and over two decades in academia. He was trained as a chemist and began his career in the food industry after service in World War II.
Blanchfield was instrumental in the development of the Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) in the 1960s. He was elected an IFT Fellow in 1980, served on two IFT task forces, and was active in the International Division and British Section. In 1997, he was appointed a member of the Most Noble Order of the British Empire in recognition of his scientific services to the food industry. He was honored with the Carl R. Fellers Award in 2002.
He remained an active volunteer for IFT, IFST, and the International Union of Food Science and Technology into his 90s.
M. Anandha “Andy” Rao passed away on July 30, 2022. He was an emeritus professor of food engineering at Cornell University, a book author and co-editor, and an expert in rheology.
Rao was named an IFT fellow in 1997. He also was a scientific editor for Journal of Food Science, contributed articles on rheology to Food Technology, and volunteered for IFT in numerous capacities.